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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. V


The Water of Leith.] ST. BERNARD?S WELL. 75 To protect it, a stone covering of some kind was proposed, and in that year the foundation thereof was actually laid by ?? Alexander Drummond, brother of Provost Drummond, lately British Consul at Aleppo, and Provincial Grand Master of all the Lodges in Asia and Europe holding of the Grand Lodge, Scotland.? The brethren in their insignia were present, the spring was named St. Bernard?s Well, and the subject inspired the local muse of Claudero. A silly legend tells how St. Bernard, being sent on a mission to the Scottish Court, was met with so cold a reception that, in chagrin, he came to this picturesque valley, and occupied a cave in the vicinity of the well, to which his attention was attracted by the number of birds that resorted to it, and ere long he announced its virtues to the people There is undoubtedly a cave, and of no inconsiderable dimensions, in the cliffs to the westward, and it is now entirely hidden by the boundarywall at the back of Randolph Cliff; but, unfortunately for the legend, in the Bollandists there are at least three St Bernards, not one of whom ever was on British soil. The present well-a handsome Doric temple, with a dome, designed by Nasmyth, after the Sybils? Temple at Tivoli-was really founded by Lord Gardenstone in May, 1789, after he had derived great benefit from drinking the waters. ?The foundation stone was laid,? says the Advertiser for that year, ?? in presence of several gentlemen of the neighbourhood.? A metal plate was sunk into it with the following inscription ;- ?< Erected for the benefit of the Public, at the sole expense of Francis Garden, Esq., of Troupe, one of the senators of the College of Justice, A.D. 1789. Alexander Nasmyth, Architect ; John Wilson, Buiider.? A fine statue of Hygeia, by Coade of London, was placed within the pillars of the temple. For thirty years after its erection it was untouched by the hand of mischief, but now it is so battered by stones as to be a perfect wreck. Since the days of Lord Gardenstone the well has always been more or less frequented. A careful analysis of the water by Dr. Stevenson Macadam, showed that it resembled closely the Harrogate springs. The morning is the best time for drinking it. During some recent drainage operations the water entirely disappeared, and it was thought the public would lose the benefit of it for ever; but after a time it returned, with its medicinal virtues stronger than ever. A plain little circular building was erected in 1810 over another spring that existed a little to the westward of St. Bernard?s, by Mr. Macdonald of Stockbridge, who named it St. George?s Well. The water is said to be the sameas that of the former, but if so, no use has been made of it for many years past. From its vicinity to the well. Upper Dean Terrace, when first built, was called Mineral Street. In those days India Place was called Athole Street; Leggat?s Land was Braid?s Row; and Veitch?s Square (built by a reputable old baker of that name) was called Virgin?s Square. The removal of the greater part of the latter, which consisted of four rows of cottages, thirty in number, and all thatched with straw, alters one of the most quaint localities in old Stockbridge. Each consisted only of a ?but and a ben?-i.e., two apartments-and in the centre was a spacious bleaching green, past which flowed the Leith, in those days pure and limpid. The cottages were chiefly. if not wholly, occupied by blanchtsseuses, and hence its name. The great playground of the village children was the open and flat piece of land in the Haugh, near Inverleith, known as the Whins, covered now by Hugh Miller Place and nine other streets of artisans? houses. In past times flour-mills and tan-pits were the chief means of affording work for the people of Stockbridge. About 1814 a china manufactory was started on a small scale on the Dean Bank grounds, near where Saxe-Coburg Place stands now. It proved a failure, but some pieces of the ?Stockbridge china? are still preserved in the Industrial Museum. As population increased in this district new churches were required. Claremont Street Chapel, now called St. Bernard?s Church, was built for those who were connected with the Establishment, at a cost of ~4,000, and opened in November, 1823. Its first incumbent was the Rev. James Henderson of Berwick, afterwards of Free St. Enoch?s, Glasgow. About the year 1826, persons connected with the Relief Church built Dean Street Church in the narrow street at the back of the great crescent, and named it St. Bernards Chapel. It was after- ? wards sold to the United Secession body. In the year 1843, at the Disruption, the Rev. Alexander Brown, of St. Bernard?s, with a great portion of his congregation, withdrew from the Church of Scotland, and formed Free St. Bernard?s; and, more recently, additional accommodation has been provided for those of that persuasion by the re-erection in its own mass, at Deanhaugh Street, of St. George?s Free Church, which was built in the Norman style of architecture, for the Rev. Dr. Candlish, at St. Cuthbert?s Lane. Mrs. Gordon is correct in stating that Stockbridge
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76 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [The Water of Leith. ~ ?? Raeburn married Ann Edgar, daughter of Peter Edgar, Esq., of Bridgelands, Peebles-shire, and widow of James Leslie, Count of Deanhaugh, St. Bernard?s. Ann Leslie had by her first husband one son, who was drowned, and two daughters -Jacobina, who married Daniel Vere, Sheriffsubstitute; and Ann, who married James Philip ? Inglis, who died in Calcutta, and left two sons- Henry Raeburn Inglis, deaf and dumb, and Charles James Leslie Inglis, late of Deanhaugh . . . . was a favourite residence for those connected with art and literature; for, in addition to her father, the professor, and Robert Chambers, many others bad their dwellings here at different times. The chief of these was Sir Henry Raeburn, who was born on the 4th of March, 1756, in a little slated cottage that stood by the side of the mill-lade, where the western part of Horn Lane now stands. It was within a garden, and pleasantly situated, though immediately adjoining the premises of his ST. RHRNARD?S WELL, 1825. (Afi?wEwbik.) father, Rob& Raeburn, who was a yarn-boiler. Northward of it was a fruit orchard, where Saunders Street now stands. Southward and west Iay the base of the beautiful grounds of Drumsheugh, where now India and Mackenzie Places are built. In his sixth year Henry Raeburn lost both his parents, and he was admitted into Heriot?s Hospital in 1765, and in 1772 he left it, to be apprenticed to a goldsmith, Mr. James Gdliland, in the Parliament Close, to whom he soon gave proofs of his ingenuity and artistic taste We have already referred to Raeburn in our account of the Scottish Academy, and need add little here concerning his artistic progress and future fame. ?At the age of twenty-two,? says, a writer, Raebum painted a portrait of his much cared-for half grandson, Henry, holding a rabbit, as his diploma picture, now in the private diploma room of the Royal Academy, London.? ? He received a handsome fortune with Mr. Edgafs daughter, with whom he had fallen in love while painting her portrait ; and after travelling in Italy to improve himself in art, he established himself in 1787 in Gorge Street, where he rapidly rose to the head of his profession in Scotland-an eminence which he maintained during a life the history of which is limited to his artistic pursuits. His style was free .and bold ; his drawing critically correct ; his colouring rich, deep, and harmonious; his accessories always appropriate. He was a member
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