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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. IV


TU Cowpate.] THE HAMMERMEN. 263 reference to those trades which form the United Incorporation of Hammermen, and to the old city companies and trades in generaL ?6 The Hammerer?s Seill of Cause,? was issued on the 2nd Nay, 1483, by Sir Patrick Baron of Spittalfield, Knight, Provost ?of the City, Patrick Balbirge of that ilk, David Crawford of St. Giles?s Grange, and Archibald Todrig, being bailies ; and under the general name are?included at that time, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, lorimers, saddlers, cutlers, buckler-makers, armourers, (( and all others within the said burgh of Edinburgh.? Pewterers were afterwards included, and a heckle-maker so lately as 1609. By the rule of the corporation it was statute and ordained, that ?? na hammerman, maister, feitman, servand, nor utheris, tak vpon hand fra this tyme furth, to exercise or use ony mair craftis but alanerly ane, and to live thairupon, sua that his brether craftismen be not hurt throu his large exercitation and exceeding of boundis,? Src. And all the privileges of the haminermen were ratified by Act of Parliament so recently as September, 1681, when shearsmiths appear as members of the corporation. In those days all the operations of industry were treated as secrets. Each trade was a craft, and those who followed it were called craftsmen ; and skilled artisans were ?? cunning men.? (Smiles.) The Hammermen?s seal bears the effigyof St. Eloi, in apostolical vestments, in a church porch surmounted by five pinnacles, holding in one hand a hammer, and in the other a key, with the legend, (( Sig2lum commune artis tudiatorum.? By the end of the 16th century the manufacture of offensive weapons predominated over all other trades in the city. The essay-piece ofa cutler, prior to his admission to the corporation, was a wellfinished ?quhinzier,? or sword; and there were gaird-makers, whose business consisted in fashioning the hilts ; dalmascars, who gilded weapons and armour. In 1582 sword blades were damascened at Edinburgh ; but ?? Hew Vans, dalmascar, was ordained not to buy blades to sell again,? his business being confined to gilding steel. There were also the belt-makers, who wrought military girdles ; dag-makers, who made hackbutts (short guns), and dags, or pistols ; but all these various trades became associated in the general one of armourers or gunsmiths, as the wearing of weapons began to fall into desuetude, and other arts connected with civilisation and luxury began to take their places. In 1586 a locksmith is first found in Edinburgh, where he was the cnly one, and could only make a ?? kist-lock.? Tirling-pins, wooden latches, and transom bars, were the appurtenances of doors before his time generally. But by 1609, ?as the security of property increased,? says Chambers, the essay was a kist-lock and a hing and bois lock with ane double plate lock ;? and, in 1644, ?? a key and sprent band were added to the essay.? In 1682 ?a cruik and cruik band? were further added; and in 1728, for the safety of the liegeq the locksmiths? essay was appointed to be ?? a cruik and cruik-band, a pass-lock with a round filled bridge, not cut or broke in the backside, with nobs and jamb bound.? The trade of a shearsmith appears first in 1595 in Edinburgh, and in 1613 Thomas Duncan, the first tinkler in the city was admitted a hammerman. The trade of a pewterer is found as far back as 1588; the first knockmaker (or clockmaker) appears in 1647, but his business was so limited that he added thereto the making of locks. (? Traditions of Edin.?) In 1664 the first white iron smith was admitted a hammerman, and the first harnessmaker, though lorimers-manufacturers of the iron-work used in saddlery-were members. since 1483. The first maker of surgical instruments in Edinburgh was Paul Martin, a French Protestant refugee, in 1691. In 1720 the first pin-maker appears ; and in 1764 the first edge-tool maker, and the first manufacturer of fish-hooks. By the first charter of the hammermen all a p plicants for admission were examined by the deacons and masters of their respective arts, as to their qualifications ; and any member found guilty of a bre?ch of any one of the articles contained in their charter, was fined eight shillings Scots towards the support of the corporation?s altar of St. Eloi in St Giles?s Church and the chaplain thereof. The goldsmiths were separated from the hammermen in 1581 ; but since then many other crafts have joined them, including gunsmiths, watchmakers, founders, braziers, and coppersmiths. The cordiners, or shoemakers, were first created into a society by the magistrates on the 28th of July, 1449 (according to Maitland), in terms of which each master of the trade who kept a booth within the town, paid one penny Scots, and the;. servants one halfpenny, towards the support of their altar of St. Crispin, in St. Giles?s Church. A new seal of cause was granted to them in 1509, and another in 1586, which enacted that their shops were not to be open on Sundays after g AM., and that no work was to be done on that day under pain of twenty shillings fine. It also regulated the days of the week on which leather boots and shoes could be sold by strangers in booths. This charter was confirmed on 6th March, 1598, by James VI., in considera
Volume 4 Page 263
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