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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. IV


2 66 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [The Cowgate. provided by the said charter, that each person commencing business for himself shall be worth three pairs of shear?, and of ability to pay for one stock .of white cloth, whereby he may be in a condition to make good any damages to those who employ him. In the same year (1500) the tailors were incorporated on the 26th August, prior to which, as a society, they possessed the altar of St. Anne in St. Giles?s, and they only had their old rules and regulations embodied in their charter from the Council. Another seal of cause was issued to them thirty years afterwards, in the reign of James V. The Corporation of Candlemakers first appears in 1517. They had no altar of their own in St. Giles?s, but certain fines provided by their charter wete to be paid towards the sustenance of any ?? misterfull alter within the College Kirk of Sanct Geils.? The craftsmen were forbidden to send boys or servants to sell candles in the streets, under pain of forfeit, and paying ?ane pund of walx to Our Lady altar, after the first fault p two pounds of wax for the second, and such punishment as the magistrates may award for the third. No member was to take an apprentice for less than four years, and all women were to be ?expellit the said craft, bot freemennis wyffes of the craft allanerlie.? The above charter was confirmed by James VI. in 1597, though the corporation lost the privilege in 1582 of sending a member to the Common Council, by failing to produce their charter, and signing the reference made in that year to the arbiters appointed by James, at the time the late constitution of the burgh was established, and remained unchanged till the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. We may here mention that a manufactory for soap is first mentioned, agrd November, 1554, when the magistrates granted a I? license to Johnne Gaittis, Inglisman, to brew saip within the fredome of this burgh for the space of ane yeir nixt heirafter? and to sell the same in lasts, halflasts, barrels, half-barrels, and firkins. But after this, till about 1621, it was chiefly imported from Flanders. The Baxters (or bakers) obtained their charter on the 20th of March, 1522, but the trade must have possessed one before, as it sets forth that in times of troublethe original document had been lost By this seal of cause it appears that they had in SL Gdes?s an altar dedicated to ?Sanct Cubart.? But the chaplain thereof, instead of being supported by fines, as the priests of the other corporations were, obtained his food by going from house to house among the members of the guild in rotation. The sole privilege of baking bread within the city was vested in its members, ,but bread baked without the walls might be sold, the corporation having, however, control over it, or the power of examining the weight and quality of ?the flour baiks and fadges that cumes fra landwart into this toune to sell.? The city records contain many references to the Baxters before the date above given. Thus in 1443, the time when they might bake and sell ?(mayne breid,? was only at ?Whitsunday, St. Giles?s Mass, Yule and Pasche.? In 1482, in buying flour from beyond the sea they were to pay multure, as if from the common mills. In 1503 Baxters convicted of baking cakes that were under weight were threatened with penalties. In 1510 there was an agreement between the farmers of the city mills and the Baxters as to grinding at the mills, with reference to the quantities to be ground when water was scarce. In 1523 the Baxters were ordained to ?baik thair breid sufficientlie and weill dryit ;? the twopenny loaf to weigh ten ounces from thenceforward, ? under pain of tynsale of their fredome,? and escheat of the bread, which is to be marked with their irons as heretofore. In . April, 1548, the city Baxters were ordered to hrnish bread for the army in the field at a given rate, and the corporation promised to do so, in the presence of the Lords Dunkeld, Rothes, Galloway, Dunfermline, and Seaton; but in July the troops would seem to have declined to receive the bread which the trade had on hand ; thus U outland Baxters were charged not to bring any bread to market for three days.? We have elsewhere (Vol. I., 382-3) had occasion to refer to the Corporation of Barber-surgeons, whose charter, dated 1st July, 1505, binds them to ?uphold ane altar in the College Kirk of Sanct Geill, in honour of God and Sanct Mongow.? They were bound to know something of anatomy, the ?nature and complexioun of every member of humanis (sic) body,? and all the veins of the same, and ? in quhilk member the srbe Am dominahim for tk time,? &c. In 1542 we read of four surgeons sent from the city to the borders, for the care of those wounded by the English. (? Pitcairn?s Trials,? I.) And in 1558 the corporation sent twenty-five of their number, including apprentices, to join the force raised for the defence of Edinburgh against ? our auld inemyes of Ingland.? (? List of Fellows, R.C.S. Edin.?) By Queen Mary they were exempted from serving on assizes. The arms of this corporation were azure, on a fesse argent, a naked man fesse-ways, between a
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The Cowgate.] THE CUNZIE NOOK. 267 dexter hand palmed, and in its palm an eye. In the dexter canton, a saltire argent, under the imperial crown, surmounted by a thistle j and in base a castle argent, masoned sable, within a border, charged with instruments used by the society. To the surgeons. were added the apothecaries. James IV., one of the greatest patrons of art and science in his time, dabbled a little in surgery and chemistry, and had an assistant, John the Leeche, whom he brought from the Continent. Pitscottie tells us that James was ?ane singular guid chirurgione,? and in his daily expense book, singular entries occur in 1491, of payments made to people to let him bleed them and pull their teeth :- ?Item, to ane fallow, because the King pullit furtht his twtht, xviii shillings. ?Item, to Kynnard, ye barbour, for tua teith drawin furtht of his hed be the King, xvci sh.? The barbers were frequently refractory, and brought the surgeons into the Court of Session t e adjust rights, real or imagined. But after the union of the latter with the apothecaries, they gave up the barber craft, and were formed into one corporation by an Act of Council, on the 25th February, 1657, as already mentioned in the account of the old Royal College of Surgeons. The first admitted after the change, was Christopher Irving, recorded as ?? ane free chmgone,? without the usual words ?and barber,? after his name. He was physician to James VII., and from him the Irvings of Castle Irving, in .Ireland, are descended. CHAPTER XXXIII. THE SOCIETY. The Candlemaker Row--The ? Cunzie Nook?-Tbe of Charles 1.-The Candlemakers? Hall--The Afhk of Dr. Symons-The Society, IS+ Brown Square-Proposed Statue to George III., x~-Di&nguished Inhabitants-Si IsIay Campbell-Lard Glenlec-Haigof Beimerside --Si John Lerlie-Miss Jeannie Elliot-Argyle Square-Origin of it-Dr. Hugh Bkit-The Sutties of that Ilk-Trades Maiden Hospital- -Mint0 House and the Elliots-New Medical School-Baptist Church-Chambers Strect-Idustrial Museum of Sdence and Art-Its Great Hall and adjoining Halls-Aim of the Architect-Contents and Models briefly glanced at-New Watt Institution and School of ArtsPhrenoloEical Museum-New Free Tron Church-New Tiainiing College of the Church of Scotland-The Dental Hospita-The . Theatre ofvari.&s. THE Candlemaker Row is simply the first portion of the old way that led from the Grassmarket and Cowgate-head, where Sir John Inglis resided in 1784, to the lands of Bnsto, and thence on to Powburn ; and it was down this way that a portion of the routed Flemings, with Guy of Namur at their head, fled towards the Castle rock, after their defeat on the Burghmuir in 1335. In Charles I.?s time a close line of street with a great open space behind occupied the whole of the east side, from the Greyfriars Port to the Cowgatehead. The west side was the boundary wall of the churchyard, save at the foot, where two or three houses appear in 1647, one of which, as the Cunzie Nook, is no doubt that referred to by Wilson as a curious little timber-fronted tenement, surmounted with antique crow-steps ; an open gallery projects in front, and rude little; shot-windows admit the light to the decayed and gloomy chambers therein.? This, we presume, to be the Cunzie Nook, a place where the Mint had no doubt been estab Cshed at some early period, possibly during some of the strange proceedings in the Regency of Mary of Guise, when the Lords of the Congregation ?past to Holyroodhous, and tuik and intromettit With the ernis of the Cunzehous.? On the west side, near the present entrance to the churchyard of the Greyfriars, stands the hall of the ancient Corporation of the Candlemakers, which gave its name to the Row, with the arms of the craft boldly cut over the doorway, on a large oblong panel, and, beneath, their appropriate motto, . Omnia man;jesfa Zuce. Internally, the hall is subdivided into many residences, smaller accommodation sufficing for the fraternity in this age of gas, so that it exists little more than in name. In 1847 the number of its members amounted to only fhw, who met periodically for various purposes, connected with the corporation and its funds. Edgar?s plan shows, in the eighteenth century, the close row of houses that existed along the whole of the west side, from the Bristo Port to the foot, and nearly till Forrest Road was opened up in a linewith the central Meadow Walk. Humble though this locality may seem now, Sir James Dunbar, Bart., of Dum, rented No. ZI in 1810, latterly a carting office. In those days the street was a place ?of considerable bustle; the Hawick dilligence started twice weekly from Paterson?s Inn, a well-known hostel in its time,
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