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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. IV


246 OLD AND NEW EDINEURGH. [Cowgate. showed that the barrel had been placed so as to collect the rain water from the eaves of a long defunct house, with a stepping-stone to enable any one to reach its contents. The old Meal Market was the next locality of importance on this side. In 1477 James 111. ordained this market to be held ? fra the Tolbooth up to Liberton?s Wynd, alsua fra thence upward to the treviss;? but the meal market of 1647, as shown in Gordon?s map, directly south of the . Parliament House, seems to have been a long, unshapely edifice, with two high arched gates. . In 1690 the meal market paid to the city, A77 15s. 6d. sterling. As we have related elsewhere, all this quarter was destroyed by the ? Great Fire? of 1700, which ?broke out in the lodging immediately under Lord Crossrig?s lodging in the meal market,? and from which he and his family had to seek flight in their night-dress. One of his daughters, Jean Home, died at Edinburgh in Feb. 1769. Edgar?s map shows the new meal market, a huge quadrangular mass, with 150 feet front by 100 in depth, immediately eastward of the Back Stairs. This place was the scene of a serious not in 1763. In November there had been a great scarcity of meal, by which multitudes of the poor were reduced to great suffering; hence, on the evening of the zIst, a great mob proceeded to the gimels in the meal market, carried off all that was there, rifled the house of the keeper, and smashed all the furniture that was not carried OK At midnight the mob dispersed on the amval of some companies of infantry from the Castle, to renew their riotous proceedings, however, on the following day, when they could only be suppressed ?by the presence of the Provost (George Drummond), bdies, trainband, constables, party of *e military, and the city guard.? Many of the unfortunate rioters were captured at the point of the bayonet, and lodged in the Castle, and the whole of the Scots Greys were quartered in the Canongate and Leith to enforce order, ? The magistrates of Edinburgh, and Justices of Peace for the County of Midlothian,? says the Norfh BnYish Magazine for I 763, have since used every means to have this market supplied effectually with meal ; but from whatever cause it may proceed, certain it is that the scarcity of oatmeal is still severely felt by every family who have occasion to make use of that commodity.? The archiepiscopal palace and the mint, which were near each other, on this side of the street, have already been described (Vol. I., pp. 262-4; 267-270); but one of the old features of the locality still remaining unchanged is the large old gateway, recessed back, which gave access to the extensive pleasure-grounds attached to the residence of the Marquises of Tweeddale, and which seem to have measured 300 feet in length by 250 in breadth, and been overlooked in the north-west angle by the beautiful old mansion of the Earls of Selkirk, the basement of which was a series of elliptical arcades. These pleasure grounds ascended from the street to the windows of Tweeddale House, by a succession of terraces, and were thickly planted on the east and west with belts of trees. In Gordon?s map for 1647, the whole of this open area had been-what it is now Secoming again-covered by masses of building, the greatest portion of it being occupied by a huge church, that has had, at various times, no less than three different congregations, an Episcopal, Presbyterian, and, finally, a Catholic one. For a few years before 1688 Episcopacy was the form of Church government in Scotlandillegally thrust upon the people; but the selfconstituted Convention, which transferred the crown to William and Mary, re-established the Presbyterian Church, abolishing the former, which consisted of fourteen bishops, two archbishops, and go0 clergymen. An Act of the Legislature ordered these to conform to the new order of things, or abandon their livings; but though expelled from these, they. continued to officiate privately to those who were disposed to attend to their ministrations, notwithstanding the penal laws enacted against them-laws which William, who detested Presbyterianism, and was an uncovenanted King,? intended to repeal if he had lived. The title of archbishop was dropp?ed by the scattered few, though a bishop was elected with the title Primus, to regulate the religious affairs of the community. There existed another body attached to the same mode of worship, composed of those who favoured the principles which occasioned the Revolution in Scotland, and,adopting the ritual of the Church of England, were supplied With clergy ordained by bishops of that country. Two distinct bodies thus existeddesignated by the name of Non-jurants, as declining the oaths to the new Government The first of these bodies-unacknowledged as a legal association, whose pastors were appointed by bishops, who acknowledged only the authority of their exiled king, who refused to take the oaths prescribed by lam; and omitted all mention of the House of Hanover in their prayers-were made the subject of several penal statutes by that House. An Episcopal chapel, whose minister was qualified
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241 CoWgab.1 THE EPISCOPAL CHAPEL. to preach openly, by taking the oaths to Govemment, had been founded in Edinburgh by Baron Smith, and two smaller ones were founded about 1746, in Skinner?s and Carrubber?s Closes; but as these places were only mean and inconvenient apartments, a plan was formed for the erection of a large and handsome church. The Episcopalians of the city chose a committee of twelve gentlemen to see the scheme executed. They purchased from the Royal College of Physicians the area of what had formerly been the Tweeddale gardens, and opened a subscription, which was the only resource they had for completing the building, the trifling funds belonging to the former obscure chapels bearing no proportion to the cost of so expensive a work. But this impediment was removed by the gentlemen of the committee, who generously gave their personal credit to a considerable amount. The foundation stone was laid on the 3rd of April, 1771, by the Grand Master Mason, Lieutenant- General Sir Adolphus Oughton, K.B., Colonel of the 31st Foot, and Commander of the Forces in Scotland. The usual coins were deposited in the stone, under a plate, inscribed thus :- EDIFICII SAC. ECCLESIW EPISC. ANGLIB, PRIMIlM POSUIT LAPIDEY, I. ADOLPHUS OUGHTON, CURIO MAXIMUS, MILITUM PRWFECTUS, REONANTE GEORGIO 111. TERTIO APR. DIE, A.D. MDCCLXXI. IN ARCHITECTONICA storm RFPUB. Towards this church the Writers to the Signet subscribed zoo guineas, and the Incorporation of Surgeons gave 40 guineas, and on Sunday, the 9th of October, 1774, divine service was performed in it for the first time. ?This is a plain, handsome building,? says Arnot, ? neatly fitted up in the inside somewhat in the form of the church of St. Martin?s-in-the-Fields, London. It is 90 feet long by 75 broad pver the walls, and is omamented with a neat spire of a tolerable height. In the spire hangs an excellent bell, formerly belonging to the Chapel Royal at Holyrood, which is permitted to be rung for assembling the congregation, an indulgence that is not allowed to the Presbyterians in England. This displays a commendable liberality of sentiment in the magistrates of Edinburgh ; but breathes no jealousy for the dignity of their national Church. In the chapel there is a fine organ, made by Snetzler.of London. In the east side is a niche of 30 feet, with a Venetian window, where stands the altar, which is adorned with paintings by Runciman, a native of Edinburgh. In the volta is the Ascefision; over the small window on the right is Christ talking with the Samaritan woman ; on the left the Prodigal returned. In these two the figures are halflength. On one side of the table is the figure of Moses ; on the other that of Elias.? At the time Arnot wrote L6,Soo had been spent on the building, which was then incomplete. ? The ground,? he adds, ?? is low ; the chapel is concealed by adjacent buildinis ; the access for carriages inconvenient, and there is this singularityattending it, that it is the only Christian church standing north and south we ever saw or heard of. . . . . . . . . There are about I,ooo persons in this congregation. Divine service is celebrated before them according to all the rites of the Church of England. This deserves to be considered as a mark of increasing moderation and liberality among the generality of the people. Not many years ago that form of worship in all its ceremonies would not have been tolerated The organ and paintings would have been downright idolatry, and the chapel would have fallen a sacrifice to the fury of the mob.? Upon the death of Mr. Can; the first senior clergyman of this chapel, he was interred under its portico, and the funeral service was sung, the voices of the congregation being accompanied by the organ. In Arnot?s time the senior clergyman was Dr. Myles Cooper, Principal of New York College, an exile from America in consequence of the revolt of the colonies. In the middle?of February, 1788, accounts reached Scotland of the death and funeral of Prince Charles Edward, the eldest grandson of James VII., at Rome, and created a profound sensation among people of all creeds, and the papers teemed with descriptions of the burial service at Frascati ; how his brother, the Cardinal, wept, and his voice broke when singing the office for the dead prince, on whose coffin lay the diamond George and collar of the Garter, now in Edinburgh Castle, while the militia of Frascati stood around as a guard, with the Master of Nairn, in whose arms the prince expired. In the subsequent April the Episcopal College met ?at Aberdeen, and unanimously resolved that they should submit ? to the present Government of this kingdom as invested in his present Majesty George III.,? death having broken the tie which bound them to the House of Stuart. Thenceforward the royal family was prayed for in all their churches, and the penal statutes, after various modifications, were repezled in 1792. Eight years afterwards the Rev. Archibald Alison (father of
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