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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. III


50 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. Holyrood. Wllliam, who had property in Broughton, after his death, none bore even nominally the title of abbot. A part of the lands fill to the Earl of Roxburghe, from whom the superiority passed, as narrated elsewhere. The ?Chronicon Sancta Crucis? was commenced by the canons of Holyrood, but the portion that has been preserved comes down only to 1163, and breaks off at the time of their third abbot. ?Even the Indices Sanctorum and the ? two Calendars of Benefactors and Brethren, begun from the earliest times, and continued by the care of numerous monks,? may-when allowance is made for the magniloquent style of the recorder-man nothing more than the united calendar, martyrology, and ritual book, which is fortunately still preserved. It is a large folio volume of 132 leaves of thick vellum, in oak boards covered with stamped leather, which resembles the binding of the sixteenth century.? . The extent of the ancient possessions of this great abbey may be gathered from the charters and gifts in the valuable Munim-nta Ecdesicp San& Cmcis de Edwinesburg and the series of Sent Rollr. To enumerate the vestments, ornaments, jewels, relics, and altar vessels of gold and silver set with precious stones, would far exceed our limits, but they are to be found at length in the second volume of the ? Bannatyne Miscellany.? When the monastery was dissolved at the Reformation its revenues were great, and according to the two first historians of Edinburgh its annual income then was stated as follows : By Maitland : In wheat. 27 chaldea, 10 bolls. I) In bear ... 40 .. g .. I t Inoa ts... 34 .. 15 .. 3tpecks. 501 capons, 24 hens, 24 salmon, 12 loads of salt, and an unknown number of swine. In money, &926 8s. 6d. Scots. By Arnot : In wheat ............ 442 bolls. .. ............. In bear 640 ss .. In oats .............. 560 .. with the same amount in other kind, and.&o sterling. CHAPTER VIII. HOLYROOD ABBEY (concluded). Charter of Willim 1.-Trial of the Scottish Tcmplars-Prrndergast?s Rercnpe--chanas by ROM IL and 111.-The Lord of the Isles- Coronation of James 11.-Marriages of James I[. and III.-Church, Bc. Burned by the Englih-Ph&d by them-Its Restoration by James VU.-The Royal Vault-Desaiption of the Chapel Royal-Plundered at the Revolution-Ruined in x*-The West Front- The Belhavcn Mouument-The Churchyard-Extent of Present Ruin-The Sanctuary-The Abbey Bells. .KING WILLIAM THE LION, in a charter under his :great seal, granted between the years 1171 and 1r77, ddressed to ?all the good men of his whole kingdom, French, English, Scots, and Galwegians,? confirmed the monks of Holyrood in all that had been given them by his grandfather, King David, together with many other gifts, including the pasture of a thousand sheep in Rumanach (Romanno?), -a document witnessed in the castle, ?apud &densehch. ? In 1309, when Elias 11. was abbot, there occurred an interesting event at Holyrood, of which no notice has yet been taken in any,history of Scotland-the trial of the Scottish Knights of the Temple on the usual charges niade against the erder, aftet the terrible murmurs that rose against it in Paris, London, and elsewhere, in consequence -of its alleged secret infidelity, sorcery, and other vices. According to the Processus factus contra Tem- .#arias in Scofict, in Wilkins? Concilia,? a work of great price and rarity, it was in the month of December, 1309-when the south of ScotIand was averrun by the English, Irish, Welsh, and Norman troops of Edward II., and John of Bretagne, Earl of Richmond, was arrogantly called lieutenant of the kingdom, though Robert Bruce, succeeding to the power and popularity of Wallace, was in arms in the north-that Master John de Soleure, otherwise styled of Solerio, ?chaplain to our lord the Pope,? together with William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, met at the Abbey of Holyrood ?for the trial of the Templars, and two brethren of that order undernamed, the only persons of the order present in the kingdom of Scotland, by command of our most holy lord Clement V.? Some curious light is thrown upon the inner life of the order by this trial, which it is impossible to give at full length. In the first place appeared Brother Walter of Clifton, who, being sworn on the Gospels, replied that he had belonged to the military order of the Temple for ten years, since the last feast of All Saints, and had been received into it at Temple Bruer, at Lincoln, in England, by Brother William de la More (whom Raynouard, in his work on the order, calls a Scotsman), and that the Scottish brother knights received the statutes and observ
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Ho1yrood.J THE SCOTTISH TEMPLARS. 51 ances of the order from the Master of England, who received them from the Grand Master at Jerusalem and the Master at Cyprus. He had then to detail the mode of his reception into the order, begging admission with clasped hands and bended knees, aflirming that he had no debts and was not affianced to any woman, and that he ?? vowed to be a perpetual servant to the master and the brotherhood, and to defend the Eastern land; to be for ever chaste and obedient, and to live without his own will and property.? A white mantle bad then been put upon his shoulder (to be worn over his chain armour, but looped up to leave the swordami free); a linen coif and the kiss of fraternity were then given him. On his knees he then vowed ?never to dwell in a house where a woman was in labour, nor be present at the marriage or purification of one; that from thence forward he would sleep in his shirt and drawers, with a cord girt over the former.? The inquisitors, who were perhaps impatient to hear of the four-legged idol, the cat, and the devil, concerning all of which such curious confessions had been made by the Florentine Templars, now asked him if he had ever heard of scandals against the order during his residence at Temple in Lothian, or of knights that had fled from their pre ceptories; and he answered :- ?Yes ; Brother Thomas Tocci and Brother John de Husflete, who for two years had been preceptor before him at Balantradoch (Temple), and also two other knights who were natives of England.? Being closely interrogated upon all the foolish accusations in the papal bull of Clement, he boldly replied to each item in the negative. Two of the charges were that their chaplains celebrated mass without the words of consecration, and that the knights believkd their preceptors could absolve sins. He explained that such powers could be delegated, and that he himself ?? had received it a considerable time ago.? Sir William de Middleton, clad in the military order of the Temple, was next sworn and interrogated in the same manner. He was admitted into the order, he said, by Sir Brian le Jay, then Master of England, who was slain by Wallace at the battle of Falkirk, and had resided at Temple in Lothian and other preceptories of the order, and gave the same denials to the clauses in the bull that had been given by Clifton, with the addition that he ?was prohibited from receiving any service from women, not even water to wash his hands.? After this he was led from the court, and fortyone witnesses, summoned to Holyrood, were examined. These were chiefly abbots, priests, and even serving-men of the order, but nothing of a criminal nature against it was elicited ; though during similar examinations at Lincoln, Brother Thomas Tocci de Thoroldby, a Templar, declared that he had heard the late Brim le Jay (Master of Scotland and afterwards of England) say a hundred times over, ? that Christ was not the true God, but a mere man, and that the smallest hair out of the beard of a Saracen was worth any Christian?s whole body ;a and that once, when he was standing in Sir Brian?s presence, certain beggars sought alms ?for the love of God and our ,Blessed Lady,? on which he threw a halfpenny in the mud, and made them hunt for it, though in midwinter, saying, ?? Go to your lady and be hanged !? Another Templar, Stephen de Stapelbrvgge, declared that Sir Brian ordered him at his admission to spit upon the cross, but he spat beside it. The first witness examined at Holyrood was Hugh Abbot of Dunfermline, who stated that he had ever viewed with suspicion the midnight chapters and ? clandestine admission of brethren.? E l k Lord Abbot of Holyrood, and Gervase Lord Abbot of Newbattle, were then examined, together with Master Robert of Kydlawe, and Patrick Prior of the Dominicans in tbe fields qear Edinburgh, and they agreed in all things with the Abbot of Dunfermline. The eighth witness, Adam of Wedale (now called Stow), a Cistercian, accused the Templars of selfishness and oppression of their neighbours, and John of Byres, a .monk of Newbattle, John of Mumphat and Gilbert of Haddington, two monks of Holyrood, entirely agreed with him ; while the rector of Ratho maintained that the Scottish Tqmplars were not free from the crimes imputed to the order, adding ?? that he had never known when any Templar was buried or heard of one dying a natural death, and that the whole order was generally against the Holy Church.? The former points had evident reference to the rumour that the order burned their dead and drank the ashes in wine ! Henry de Leith Rector of Restalrig, Nicholas Vicar of Lasswade, John Chaplain of St. Leonard?s, and others, agreed in all things with the Abbot of Dunfermline, as did nine Scottish barons of rank who added that the knights were ungracious to the poor, practising hospitality alone to the great and wealthy, and then only under the impulse of fear ; and moreover, that had the Templars been good Christians they would never have lost the Holy Land.? The forty-first and last witness, John Thyng, who for seventeen years had been a serving brother of the order in Scotland, coincided with the others,
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