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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. I


according to Bellenden, was now standing boldly at bay, and, with its branching antlers, put the life of the pious monarch in imminent jeopardy, as he and his horse were both borne to the ground. With a short hunting-sword, while fruitlessly endeavouring to defend himself against the infuriated animal, there appeared-continues the legend-a silver cloud, from the centre of which there came forth a hand, which placed in that of David a sparkling cross of miraculous construction, in so far that the material of which it was composed could never be discovered. Scared by this interposition, the white stag fled down the hollow way between the hills, but was afterwards slain by Sir Gregan Crawford, whose crest, a stag?s head erased with a cross-crosslet between the antlers, is still borne by his descendants, the Crawfords of Kilbirnie, in memory of that eventful day in the forest of Drurnsheugh. Thoughtful, and oppressed with great awe, the king slowly wended his way through the forest to the Castle ; but the wonder did not end there, for when, after a long vigil, the king slept, there appeared by his couch St. Andrew, the apostle of Scotland, surrounded by rays of glory, instructing him to found, upon the exact spot where he had been miraculously saved, a fwegfh monastery for the canons regular of St. Augustine ; and, in obedience to this vision, he built the noble abbey of Holyrood, ?in the little valley between two mountains ?-i.e., the Craigs and the Calton. Therein the marvellous cross was preserved till it was lost at a long subsequent period; but, in memory of St. David?s adventure on Rood-day, a stag?s head with a cross between the antlers is still boqe as the arms of the Canongate. Alfwin was appointed first abbot, and left a glorious memory for many virtues.* Though nobly endowed, this famous edifice was not built for several years, during which the monks were received into the Castle, and occupied buildings which had been previously the abode of a community of nuns, who, by permission of Pope Alexander III., were removed, the monks, as Father Hay tells us, being deemed ?as fitter to live among soldiers.? Abbot M7illiard appears, in 1152, as second superior of the monks in the Castrum Puellarum, where they resided till I I 76. A vehement dispute respecting the payment of tithes having occurred between Robert bishop of St. Andrews and Gaufrid abbot of Dunfermline, it was decided by the king, apud Casielum PueZZamm, m presence of a great convention, con- ? ? Memorials of Ediiburgh Castle.? sisting of the abbots of Holyrood and Stirling, Gregory bishop of Dunkeld, the Earls of Fife and March, Hugo de Morville the Lord High Constable, William Lord of Carnwath, David de Oliphant a knight of Lothian, Henry the son of Swan, and many others, and the matter in debate was adjudicated on satisfactorily. David--?< sair sanct for the crown ? though King James I. is said to have styled him-was one of the best of the early kings of Scotland. ?I have seen him,? remarks Aldred, ?quit his horse and dismiss his hunting equipage when any, even the humblest of his subjects, desired an audience ; he sometimes employed his leisure hours in the culture of his garden, and in the philosophical amusement of budding and engrafting trees.? In the priory of Hexham, which was then in Scottish territory, he was found dead, in a posture of devotion, on the 24th of May, 1153, and was succeeded by his grandson Malcolm IV. who, though he frequently resided in the Castle, considered Scone his capital rather than Edinburgh. In 1153 he appointed Galfrid de Melville, of Melville in Lothian, to be sheriff of the fortress, and became a great benefactor to the monks within it. In 1160, Fergus, Lord of Galloway, a turbulent thane, husband of the Princess Elizabeth daughter of Henry I. of England, having taken arms against the Crown, was defeated in three desperate battles by Gilbert de Umfraville ; after which he gave his son Uchtred as a hostage, and assumed the cowl as an Augustine friar in the Castle of Edinburgh, where-after bestowing the priory of St. Marie de Tray11 as a dependant on Holyrood-he died, full of grief and mortification, in IIGI. Malcolm died in 1165, and was succeeded by William the Lion, who generally resided at Haddington; but many of his public documents are dated ?Ajud Monasienicnt San& Crzmi de CasteZZo.? In 1174 the Castle fell, for the first time, into the hands of the English. William the Lion having demanded the restitution of Northumberland, Henry of England affected to comply, but afterwards invaded Scotland, and was repulsed. In turn William entered England at the head of 80,ooo men, who sorely I ravaged the northern counties, but being captured by treachery near Alnwick, and treated with wanton barbarity and indecency, his vast force dispersed. A ransom of AIoo,ooo-an enormous sum in those dayswas demanded, and the Castle was given, with some others, as a hostage for the king. Fortunately, however, that which was lost by the chances of war was quickly restored by more pleasant means,
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for, a matrimonial alliance having been concluded between Ermengarde de Beaumont (cousin of Henry) and King VJilliam, the Castle was thriftily given up as part of her dowry, after having had an English garrison for nearly twelve years. Alexander II., their son, convened his first parliament in Edinburgh in 1215. Alexander III., son of the preceding, having been betrothed to Margaret daughter of Henry 111. of England nine years before their nuptials were celebrated at York in 1242, the queen, according to Amot, had Edinburgh Castle appointed as her residence; but it would seem to have been more of a stronghold than a palace, as she complained to her father that it was a ?? sad and solitary place, without verdure, and, by reason of its vicinity to the sea, unwholesome;? and ?that she was not permitted to make excursions through the kingdom, nor to choose her female attendants.? She was in her sixteenth year. Walter Earl of Menteith was at this time governor of the fortress, and all the offices of the city and of the nation itself were in the hands of his powerful family. Many Englishmen of rank accompanied the young queen-consort, and between these southern intruders and the jealous Scottish nobles there soon arose disputes that were both hot and bitter. As usual, the kingdom was rent into two powerful factions-one secretly favouring Henry, who artfully wished to have Scotland under his own dominion; another headed by Walter Comyn, John de Baliol, and others, who kept possession of Edinburgh, and with it the persons of the young monarch and his bride. These patriotically resisted the ambitious attempts of the King of England, whose emissaries, 0; being joined by the Earls of Carrick, Dunbar, and Strathearn, and Alan Dureward, High Justiciary, while theiI rivals were preparing to hold a parliament at Stirling, took the Castle of Edinburgh by surprise, and liberated the royal pair, who were triumphantly conducted to a magnificent bridal chamber, and afterwards had an interview with Henry at Wark, in Northumberland. During the remainder of the long and prosperous reign of Alexander 111. the fortress continued to be the chief place of the royal residence, and foI holding his courts for the transaction of judicial affairs, and much of the public business is said tc have been transacted in St. Maxgaret?s chamber. In 1278 William of Kinghorn was governor; and about this period the Castle was repaired and strengthened. It was then the safe deposit of the principal records and the regalia of the kingdom. And now we approach the darkest and bloodiesl . portion of the Scottish annals ; when on the death of the Maid of Norway (the little Queen Margaret) came the contested succession to the crown between Bruce, Baliol, and others ; and an opportunity was given to Edward I. of England of advancing a claim to the Scottish crown as absurd as it was baseless, but which that ferocious prince prosecuted to the last hour of his life with unexampled barbarity and treachery. On the 11th of June, 1291, the Castle?of Edinburgh and all the strongholds in the Lowlands were unwisely and unwarily put into the hands of the crafty Plantagenet by the grasping and numerous claimants, on the ridiculous pretence that the subject in dispute should be placed in the power of the umpire ; and the governors of the various fortresses, on finding that the four nobles who had been appointed .guardians of the realm till the dispute was adjusted had basely abandoned Scotland to her fate, they, too, quietly gave up their trusts to Edward, who (according to Prynne?s ? History ?) appointed Sir Radulf Basset de Drayton governor of Edinburgh Castle, with a garrison of English soldiers. According to Holinshed he personally took this Castle after a fifteen days? siege with his warlike engines. On the vigil of St. Bartholomew a list was drawn up of the contents of the Treasury in the Castra de Edrir6ut-g; and among other religious regalia we find mentioned the Black Rood of Scotland, which St. Margaret venerated so much. . By Edward?s order some of the records were left in the Castle under the care of Basset, but all the most valuable documents were removed to England, where those that showed too clearly the ancient independence of Scotland were carefully destroyed, or tampered with, and others were left to moulder in the Tower of London. On the 8th of July, 1292, we find Edward again at Edinburgh, where, as self-styled Lord Paramount, he received within the chapel of St. Margaret the enforced oath of fealty from Adam, Abbot of Holyrood; John, Abbot of Newbattle ; Sir Brim le Jay, Preceptor of the Scottish Templars; the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem ; and Christina, Prioress of Emanuel, in Stirlingshire. Bnice having refused to accept a crown shorn of its rank, Edward declared in favour of the pitiful Baliol, after which orders were issued to the captains of the Scottish castles to deliver them up to John, King of Scotland. Shame at last filled the heart of the latter; he took the field, and lost the battle of Dunbar. Edward, reinforced by fifteen thousand Welsh and a horde of Scottish traitors, appeared before Edinburgh Castle; the
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