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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. IV


2 66 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [The Cowgate. provided by the said charter, that each person commencing business for himself shall be worth three pairs of shear?, and of ability to pay for one stock .of white cloth, whereby he may be in a condition to make good any damages to those who employ him. In the same year (1500) the tailors were incorporated on the 26th August, prior to which, as a society, they possessed the altar of St. Anne in St. Giles?s, and they only had their old rules and regulations embodied in their charter from the Council. Another seal of cause was issued to them thirty years afterwards, in the reign of James V. The Corporation of Candlemakers first appears in 1517. They had no altar of their own in St. Giles?s, but certain fines provided by their charter wete to be paid towards the sustenance of any ?? misterfull alter within the College Kirk of Sanct Geils.? The craftsmen were forbidden to send boys or servants to sell candles in the streets, under pain of forfeit, and paying ?ane pund of walx to Our Lady altar, after the first fault p two pounds of wax for the second, and such punishment as the magistrates may award for the third. No member was to take an apprentice for less than four years, and all women were to be ?expellit the said craft, bot freemennis wyffes of the craft allanerlie.? The above charter was confirmed by James VI. in 1597, though the corporation lost the privilege in 1582 of sending a member to the Common Council, by failing to produce their charter, and signing the reference made in that year to the arbiters appointed by James, at the time the late constitution of the burgh was established, and remained unchanged till the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. We may here mention that a manufactory for soap is first mentioned, agrd November, 1554, when the magistrates granted a I? license to Johnne Gaittis, Inglisman, to brew saip within the fredome of this burgh for the space of ane yeir nixt heirafter? and to sell the same in lasts, halflasts, barrels, half-barrels, and firkins. But after this, till about 1621, it was chiefly imported from Flanders. The Baxters (or bakers) obtained their charter on the 20th of March, 1522, but the trade must have possessed one before, as it sets forth that in times of troublethe original document had been lost By this seal of cause it appears that they had in SL Gdes?s an altar dedicated to ?Sanct Cubart.? But the chaplain thereof, instead of being supported by fines, as the priests of the other corporations were, obtained his food by going from house to house among the members of the guild in rotation. The sole privilege of baking bread within the city was vested in its members, ,but bread baked without the walls might be sold, the corporation having, however, control over it, or the power of examining the weight and quality of ?the flour baiks and fadges that cumes fra landwart into this toune to sell.? The city records contain many references to the Baxters before the date above given. Thus in 1443, the time when they might bake and sell ?(mayne breid,? was only at ?Whitsunday, St. Giles?s Mass, Yule and Pasche.? In 1482, in buying flour from beyond the sea they were to pay multure, as if from the common mills. In 1503 Baxters convicted of baking cakes that were under weight were threatened with penalties. In 1510 there was an agreement between the farmers of the city mills and the Baxters as to grinding at the mills, with reference to the quantities to be ground when water was scarce. In 1523 the Baxters were ordained to ?baik thair breid sufficientlie and weill dryit ;? the twopenny loaf to weigh ten ounces from thenceforward, ? under pain of tynsale of their fredome,? and escheat of the bread, which is to be marked with their irons as heretofore. In . April, 1548, the city Baxters were ordered to hrnish bread for the army in the field at a given rate, and the corporation promised to do so, in the presence of the Lords Dunkeld, Rothes, Galloway, Dunfermline, and Seaton; but in July the troops would seem to have declined to receive the bread which the trade had on hand ; thus U outland Baxters were charged not to bring any bread to market for three days.? We have elsewhere (Vol. I., 382-3) had occasion to refer to the Corporation of Barber-surgeons, whose charter, dated 1st July, 1505, binds them to ?uphold ane altar in the College Kirk of Sanct Geill, in honour of God and Sanct Mongow.? They were bound to know something of anatomy, the ?nature and complexioun of every member of humanis (sic) body,? and all the veins of the same, and ? in quhilk member the srbe Am dominahim for tk time,? &c. In 1542 we read of four surgeons sent from the city to the borders, for the care of those wounded by the English. (? Pitcairn?s Trials,? I.) And in 1558 the corporation sent twenty-five of their number, including apprentices, to join the force raised for the defence of Edinburgh against ? our auld inemyes of Ingland.? (? List of Fellows, R.C.S. Edin.?) By Queen Mary they were exempted from serving on assizes. The arms of this corporation were azure, on a fesse argent, a naked man fesse-ways, between a
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