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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. II


262 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [High Street other services, Charles Philip Count d?artois, brother of the ill-fated Louis XVI., and his son the Duc d?Angoul&me, while, in the earlier years of their exile, they resided at Holyrood, by permission of the British Government, though the people of Scotland liked to view it as in virtue of the ancient Alliance; and a most humble place of worship it must have seemed to the count, who is described as having been ?the most gay, gaudy, fluttering, accomplished, luxurious, and expensive prince in Europe.? A doorway inscribed in antique characters of the 16th century, Miserwe mei Dew, gave access to this chapel. It bore a shield in the centre with three mullets in chief, a plain cross, and two swords saltire-waysthe coat armorial of some long-forgotten race. Another old building adjoined, above the door of which was the pious legend ranged in two lines, The feeir of the Lordis the Qegynning of al visdome, but as to the generations of men that dwelt there not even a tradition remains. Lower down, at the south-west corner of the Wynd, there formerly stood the English Episcopal Chapel, founded, in 1722, by the Lord Chief Baron Smith of the Exchequer Court, for a clergyman qualified to take the oaths to Government. To endow it he vested a sum in the public funds for the purpose of yielding A40 per annum to the incumbent, and left the management in seven trustees nominated by himself. The Baron?s chapel existed for exactly a century; it was demolished in 1822, after serving as a place of worship for all loyal and devout Episcopal High Churchmen at a time when Episcopacy and Jacobitism were nearly synonymous terms in Scotland. It was the most fashionable church in the city, and there it was that Dr. Johnson sat in 1773, when on his visit to Boswell. When this edifice was founded, according to Arnot, it was intended that its congregation should unite with others of the Episcopal persuasion in the new chapel ; but the incumbent, differing from his hearers about the mode of his settlement there, chose to withdraw himself again to that in which he was already established. .? After the accession of George III., ?certain officious people ? lodged information against some of the Episcopal clergymen ; ?? but,? says Amot, ? the officers of state, imitating the liberality and clemency of their gracious master, discountenanced such idle and invidious endeavours at oppression.? In the Blackfriars Wynd-though in what part thereof is not precisely known now, unless on the site of Baron Smith?s chapel-the semi-royal House of Sinclair had a town. mansion. They were Princes and Earls of Orkney, Lords of Roslin, Dukes of Oldenburg, and had a list oE titles that has been noted for its almost Spanish tediousness. In his magnificence, Earl William-who built Roslin Chapel, was High Chancellor in 1455, and ambassador to England in the same year-far surpassed what had often sufficed for the kings of Scotland. His princess, Margaret Douglas, daughter of Archibald Duke of Touraine, according to Father Hay, in his ?Genealogie of the Sainte Claires of Rosslyn,? was waited upon by ? seventy-five gentlewomen, whereof fifty-three were daughters of noblemen, all cloathed in velvets and silks, with their chains of gold and other pertinents ; together with two hundred riding gentlemen, who accompanied her in all her journeys. She had carried before her, when she went to Edinburgh, if it were darke, eighty lighted torches. Her lodging was at the foot of Blackfryer Wynde ; so that in a word, none matched her in all the country, save the Queen?s Majesty.?? Father Hay tells us, too, that Earl William ?kept a great court, and was royally served at his own table in vessels of gold and silver : Lord Dirleton being his master of the household, Lord Borthwick his cup bearer, and Lord Fleming his carver, in whose absence they had deputies, viz., Stewart, Laird of Drumlanng ; Tweedie, Laird of Drumrnelzier; and Sandilands, Laird of Calder. He had his halls and other apartments richly adorned with embroidered hangings.? At the south-west end of the Wynd, and abutting on the Cowgate, where its high octagon turret, on six rows of corbels springing from a stone shaft, was for ages a prominent feature, stood the archiepiscopal palace, deemed in its time one of the most palatial edifices of old Edinburgh. It formed two sides of a quadrangle, with aporfe rochlre that gave access to a court behind, and was built by James Bethune, who was Archbishop of Glasgow (1508-1524), Lord Chancellor of Scotland in I 5 I 2, and one of the Lords Regent, under the Duke of Albany, during the stormy minority of James V. Pitscottie distinctlyrefers to it as the xrchbishop?s house, ?? quhilk he biggit in the Freiris Wynd,? and Keith records that over the door of it were the arms of the family of Bethune, to be seen in his time. But they had disappeared long before the demolition of the house, the ancient risp of which was sold among the collection of the late C. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, in 1851. Another from the same house is in the museum of the Scottish Antiquaries The stone bearing the coat of arms was also in his possession, and it is thus referred to by &bet in
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High Street.] CARDINAL BEATON?S HDUSE. 263 his Heraldry :-? With us (the Scots) angels have been frequently made use of as supporters. Cardinal Beaton had his, supported by two angels, in Dalmatic habits, or, as some say, priestly ones, which are yet to be seen on his lodgings in Blackfriars Wynd.? The cardinal?s arms, as borne on his archiepiscopal seal, are Bethune and Balfour quarterly, with a cross-crosslet-headed pastoral staff, and the tasselled hat over all. Upon all the buildings erected by the archbishop ?his armorial bearings were conspicuously displayed,? says Wilson, ?and a large stone tablet remained, till a few years since, over the archway of Blackfriars Wynd, leading into the inner court, supported by two angels in Dalmatic habits, and surmounted by a crest, sufficiently defaced to enable antiquaries to discover in it either a mitre or a cardinal?s hat, according as their theory of the original ownership inclined towards the archbishop or his more celebrated nephew the cardinal.? Occupying the space between Blackfriars Wynd and Toddrick?s Wynd, the archiepiscopal palace afforded a striking example of the revolutions effected by time and change of manners on the ancient abodes of the opulent and the noble. As it appeared before its demolition no doubt could be entertained that some portions of it had been rebuilt, to suit the requirements of its last humble denizens, but much remained to form connectinglinks in the long chain of ages, The whole of the entrance floor had been strongly groined with stone, built on solid pillars, calculated to afford protection during the brawls and conflicts of the times. Within the arched passage that led from the Wynd a broad flight of steps led to the first floor of the palace, a mode of construction common in those days, when the architect had to cogsider security, and how the residents might resist an attack till terms were obtained, or succour came. In early times the whole of the space occupied by the Mint in the Cowgate and other buildings to the north thereof had been the garden grounds of the archiepiscopal residence. Here it was, as we have related, that the Earl of Arran and his armed adherents held their stormy conclave on the 30th of April, 1520, concerting the capture and death of Angus, whose war array held the High Street and barricaded the close-heads ; and liere it WLS that Gawain Douglas, the Bishop of Dunkeld, and translator of Virgil, whose two brothers fell at Flodden, called on the archbishop, and strove to keep the peace in vain, for the prelate was already in his armour, and the dreadful conflict of ? Cleanse the Causeway ? ensued, giving victory to the Douglases, and compelling the fugitive archbishop, during 1525, the time they were.in power, to seek safety in the disguise of a shepherd, and, literally, crook in hand, to tend flocks of sheep on Bograin-knowe, not far from his diocesan city of Glasgow. James V, took up his abode in the archiepiscopal palace in 1528, preparatory to the meeting of Parliament, and the archbishop, who had been one of the most active promoters of his liberation from the Douglas faction, became his host and entertainer. Here, in after years, resided his nephew, David Beaton, the formidable cardinal, who, in 1547, was murdered so barbarously in the castle of St. Andrew, and here also was literally the cradle of the now farnous High School of Edinburgh, as it was occupied as the ?Grammar Skule? in 1555, while that edifice, which stood eahward of the Kirk-of-field, was in course of erection, We next hear of the little paiace in the reign of Mary. On the 8th of February, 1562, her brother, the Lord James Stewart, ? newly created Earl of Mar (afterwards Moray) ? was married upon Agnes Keith, daughter to William Earl Marischal,? says the Diurnal of Occurrents, (? in the kirk of Sanct Geil, in Edinburgh, with solemnity as the like has not been seen before; the hale nobility of this realm being there present, and convoyit them down to Holyrood House, where the banquet was made, the queen?s grace thereat.? After music and dancing, casting of fire-balls, tilting with fire-spears, and much jollity, next evening the queen, with all her court, came up in state from Holyraod ?to the cardinal?s lodging in the Blackfriar Wynd, which was preparit and hung maist honourably.? Then the queen and her courtiers had a joyous supper, after which all the young craftsmen of the city came in their armour, and conveyed her back to Holyrood. Up Blackfriars Wynd, past the house of the late cardinal, Queen Mary proceeded on the fatal night of the 9th of February, 1567, about the same time nearly that Bothwell and his accomplices passed down the next alley, on their way to the Kirk-of-field. She had dined that day at Holyrood, and about eight in the evening went to sup with the Bishop of Argyle. At nine she rose from the table, and accompanied by the Earls of Argyle, Cassilis, and Huntly, escorted by her archer-guard and torch-bearers, went to visit Darnley in the lonely Kirk-of-field, intending to remain there for the night, but returned home. As she was proceeding, three of Bothwell?s retainers, Dalgleish, Powrie, and Wilson, in their depositions, stated that after conveying the powder-bags to the convent gate, at the foot of the Blackfriars Wynd, they saw ?the Qucnes grace gangand
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