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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. I


ns and howitzers on the bastions of the latter and the Calton Hill. The sharp encounter there, and at St. Leonard?s Hill, in both of which he was completely repulsed, are apart from the history of the fortress, from the ramparts of which the young king Charles 11. witnessed them; but the battle of Dunbar subsequently placed all the south of Scotland at the power of Cromwell, when he was in desperation about returning for England, the Scots having cut off his retreat. On the 7th September, 1650, he entered Edinburgh, and placed it under martial law, enforcing the most rigid regulations; yet the people had nothing to complain of, and justice was impartially administered. He took up his residence at the Earl of Moray?s house-that stately edifice on the south side of the Canongate-and quartered his soldiers in Holyrood and the city; but his guard, or outlying picket, was in Dunbar?s Close-so named from the victors of Dunbar ; and tradition records that a handsome old house at the foot of Sellars Close was occasionally occupied by him while pressing the siege of the Castle, which was then full of those fugitive preachers whose interference had caused the ruin of Leslie?s army. With them he engaged in a curious polemical discussion, and is said by Pinkerton to have preached in St. Giles?s churchyard to the people. To facilitate the blockade he demolished the ancient Weigh House, which was not replaced @ill after the Restoration. He threw UP batteries at Heriot?s Hospital, which was full of his wounded ; on the north bank of the loch, and the stone bartisan of Davidson?s house on the Castle Hill. He hanged in view of the Castle, a poor old gardener who had supplied Dundas with some information ; and during these operations, Nicoll, the diarist, records that there were many slain, ? both be schot of canoun and musket, as weell Scottis as Inglische.? Though the garrison received a good supply of provisions, by the bravery of Captain Augustine, a German soldier of fortune who served in the Scottish army, and who hewed a passage into the fortress through Cromwell?s guards, at the head of 120 horse, Dundas, when tampered with, was cold in his defence. Cromwell pressed the siege with vigour. He mustered colliers from the adjacent country, and forced them, under fire, to work at a mine on the south side, near the new Castle road, where it can still?be seen in the freestone rock. Dundas, a traitor from the first, now lost all heart, and came to terms with Cromwell, to whom he capitulated on the 12th of December, 1650.* 1 * The articles of the treaty and the list of the captured guns arc given at length in Balfour?s ??AM&? Exactly as St. Giles?s clock struck twelve the garrison marched ? out, with drums beating and colours flying, after which the Castle was garrisoned by ? English blasphemers ? (as the Scots called them) under Colonel George Fenwick. Cromwell, in reporting all this to the English Parliament, says :-?; I think I need say little of the strength of this place, which, if it had not come as it did, would have cost much blood. . . . I must needs say, not any skill or wisdom of ours, but the good will of God hatli given you this place.? By the second article of the treaty the records of Scotland n-ere transmitted to Stirling, on the capture of which they were sent in many hogsheads to London, and lost at sea when being sent back, Dundas was arraigned before the Parliament, and his reputation was never freed from the stain cast upon it by the capitulation; and Sir Janies Balfour, his contemporary, plainly calls him a base, cowardly, ?? traitorous villane ! ? Cromwell defaced the royal arms at the Castle gate and elsewhere ; yet his second in command, Monk, was f2ted at a banquet by the magistrates, when, on the 4th May, 1652, he was proclaimed Protector of the Commonwealth. At first brawls were frequent, and English soldiers were cut off on every available occasion. One day in the High Street, an officer came from Cromwell?s house ?in great says Patrick Gordon, and as he mounted his horse, mhly &d aloud, ? With my own hands I killed the Scot to whom this horse and these pistols belonged. Who dare say I wronged him?? ccI dare, and thus avenge him !? exclaimed one who stood near, and, running the Englishman through the body, mounted his horse, dashed through the nearest gate, and escaped into the fields. For ten years there was perfect peace in Edin. burgh, and stage coaches began to run every three weeks between it and the ?George Inn, without Aldersgate, London,? for A4 10s. a seat. Iambert?s officers preached in the High Kirk, and buffcoated troopers taught and expounded in the Parliament House; and so acceptable became the sway of the Protector to civic rulers that they had just proposed to erect acolossal stone monument in his honour, when the Restoration came ! It was hailed with the wildest joy by all the Scottish people. The cross of Edinburgh was garlanded with flowers ; its fountains ran with wine ; 300 dozen of glasses were broken there, in drinking to the health of His Sacred Majesty and the perdition of Cromwell, who in effigy wa- 5 consigned to the devil. Banquets were given, and salutes fired from the Castle, where Mons Meg was
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