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Old and New Edinburgh Vol. I


according to Bellenden, was now standing boldly at bay, and, with its branching antlers, put the life of the pious monarch in imminent jeopardy, as he and his horse were both borne to the ground. With a short hunting-sword, while fruitlessly endeavouring to defend himself against the infuriated animal, there appeared-continues the legend-a silver cloud, from the centre of which there came forth a hand, which placed in that of David a sparkling cross of miraculous construction, in so far that the material of which it was composed could never be discovered. Scared by this interposition, the white stag fled down the hollow way between the hills, but was afterwards slain by Sir Gregan Crawford, whose crest, a stag?s head erased with a cross-crosslet between the antlers, is still borne by his descendants, the Crawfords of Kilbirnie, in memory of that eventful day in the forest of Drurnsheugh. Thoughtful, and oppressed with great awe, the king slowly wended his way through the forest to the Castle ; but the wonder did not end there, for when, after a long vigil, the king slept, there appeared by his couch St. Andrew, the apostle of Scotland, surrounded by rays of glory, instructing him to found, upon the exact spot where he had been miraculously saved, a fwegfh monastery for the canons regular of St. Augustine ; and, in obedience to this vision, he built the noble abbey of Holyrood, ?in the little valley between two mountains ?-i.e., the Craigs and the Calton. Therein the marvellous cross was preserved till it was lost at a long subsequent period; but, in memory of St. David?s adventure on Rood-day, a stag?s head with a cross between the antlers is still boqe as the arms of the Canongate. Alfwin was appointed first abbot, and left a glorious memory for many virtues.* Though nobly endowed, this famous edifice was not built for several years, during which the monks were received into the Castle, and occupied buildings which had been previously the abode of a community of nuns, who, by permission of Pope Alexander III., were removed, the monks, as Father Hay tells us, being deemed ?as fitter to live among soldiers.? Abbot M7illiard appears, in 1152, as second superior of the monks in the Castrum Puellarum, where they resided till I I 76. A vehement dispute respecting the payment of tithes having occurred between Robert bishop of St. Andrews and Gaufrid abbot of Dunfermline, it was decided by the king, apud Casielum PueZZamm, m presence of a great convention, con- ? ? Memorials of Ediiburgh Castle.? sisting of the abbots of Holyrood and Stirling, Gregory bishop of Dunkeld, the Earls of Fife and March, Hugo de Morville the Lord High Constable, William Lord of Carnwath, David de Oliphant a knight of Lothian, Henry the son of Swan, and many others, and the matter in debate was adjudicated on satisfactorily. David--?< sair sanct for the crown ? though King James I. is said to have styled him-was one of the best of the early kings of Scotland. ?I have seen him,? remarks Aldred, ?quit his horse and dismiss his hunting equipage when any, even the humblest of his subjects, desired an audience ; he sometimes employed his leisure hours in the culture of his garden, and in the philosophical amusement of budding and engrafting trees.? In the priory of Hexham, which was then in Scottish territory, he was found dead, in a posture of devotion, on the 24th of May, 1153, and was succeeded by his grandson Malcolm IV. who, though he frequently resided in the Castle, considered Scone his capital rather than Edinburgh. In 1153 he appointed Galfrid de Melville, of Melville in Lothian, to be sheriff of the fortress, and became a great benefactor to the monks within it. In 1160, Fergus, Lord of Galloway, a turbulent thane, husband of the Princess Elizabeth daughter of Henry I. of England, having taken arms against the Crown, was defeated in three desperate battles by Gilbert de Umfraville ; after which he gave his son Uchtred as a hostage, and assumed the cowl as an Augustine friar in the Castle of Edinburgh, where-after bestowing the priory of St. Marie de Tray11 as a dependant on Holyrood-he died, full of grief and mortification, in IIGI. Malcolm died in 1165, and was succeeded by William the Lion, who generally resided at Haddington; but many of his public documents are dated ?Ajud Monasienicnt San& Crzmi de CasteZZo.? In 1174 the Castle fell, for the first time, into the hands of the English. William the Lion having demanded the restitution of Northumberland, Henry of England affected to comply, but afterwards invaded Scotland, and was repulsed. In turn William entered England at the head of 80,ooo men, who sorely I ravaged the northern counties, but being captured by treachery near Alnwick, and treated with wanton barbarity and indecency, his vast force dispersed. A ransom of AIoo,ooo-an enormous sum in those dayswas demanded, and the Castle was given, with some others, as a hostage for the king. Fortunately, however, that which was lost by the chances of war was quickly restored by more pleasant means,
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