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Book 10  p. 504
(Score 0.88)

with little change of system, save that in 1809
their number was increased from twenty-one to
twenty-eight, and out of that number the Crown
was empowered to appoint seven to be Commissioners
for the Herring Fishery j and from that
time the Fishery Board and the Board of Manufactures
have virtually been separate bodies.
Regarding the Royal Institution, in which it now
has chambers, Lord Cockburn says :-? Strictly, it
ought to have been named after the old historical
THE ROYAL INSTITUTION AS IT WAS IN 1829. (From a Drawkg ay S h @ M )
mental art, and also in taste and design -in manufacture.
In the same year Sir John Shaw Lefevre
was sent down by Government to report on the
constitutionand management of the Board and the
erection of the Galleries of Art in Edinburgh.
Since the Board began to give premiums for the
encouragement of the .linen trade, that branch of
business has made giant strides in Scotland. ?It
takes about six months,? says David Bremner,
?? from the purchase cif the raw material before the
board of trustees, because it was by their money
and for their accommodation chiefly it was made,
and ?the Trustees? Hall? had been the title ever
since the Union, of the place in the old town where
they had met.?
In 1828 new letters patent were issued, giving to
the trustees a wider discretion; and empowering
them to apply their funds to the encouragement not
only of manufactures, but also of such other undertakings
in Scotland as should most conduce to the
general welfare of the United Kingdom.
In 1847 an Act was passed by which the
Treasury was enabled to direct the appropriation
of their funds towards the purposes of education in
the fine arts generaliy, in decorative and ornagoods
can be manufactured and the proceeds drawn,
so that the stock-in-trade of manufacturers and
merchants will amount to ~t;5,ooo,ooo. It would
thus appear that a capital of ~ ~ z , o o o , o o o is required
for carrying on the linen trade of Scotland.?
It was under this Board of Manufactures that
the quality of Scottish linen was improved. One
of their earliest acts was to propose to Nicholas
d?Assaville, a cambric weaver of St. Quintin, in
France, to bring over ten experienced weavers in
cambric, with their families, to settle in Scotland
and teach their art to others. The proposal was
accepted, and the trustees purchased from the
governors of Heriot?s Hospital five acres of ground
eastward of Broughton Loan, whereon were built
- ... a cambric weaver of St. Quintin, in France , to bring over ten experienced weavers ...

Book 3  p. 84
(Score 0.87)

338 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [The Inch.
CHAPTER XL.
THE ENVIRONS OF EDINBURGH (continued).
The Inch Honse-The Winrams-Ednonstone and the Edmonstones of that Ilk-WitcheesW @Itnet-The StenhoustMoredun-The Stewarts of
Goodtree-The Ruckstane-Burdiehouse-Its Limekilns and Fossils
A LITTLE way eastward of Nether Liberton stands ~ to Sir Alexander Gilmour of Craigmillar, according
the quaint old Inch House, built in the year 1617, to the Valuation Roll for that year.
during the reign of James VI., upon land which, in
the preceding century, belonged to the monks of
Holyrood-a mansion long the residence of the
Little-Gilmours of Craigmillar, and of old the
patrimony of the Winrams of The Inch and
Liberton, a family, according to the ArchmZogia
.%QfiC@, descended from the Winrams of Wiston, in
Clydesdale.
In 1644 George Winram of Liberton was a
baron of Parliament. In the following year he
accused the Commissioner for Aberdeen, Patrick
Leslie, ? as one unworthy to sit in Parliament, being
a malignant, who drunk Montrose?s health ?-a
statement remitted to a committee of the House.
(Balfour?s ? Annales.?)
In 1649 he was made a Lord of Session, by the
title of Lord Liberton, and was one of the commissioners
sent to the young king in Holland, after
seeing whom, he, with the others, landed at Stonehaven,
and was with the Parliament at Perth in the
August of the same year.
In October he sailed from Leith to Gsit the
king again at Brussels on public business, obtaining
a passage in a States man-of-war, in company
with Thomas Eunningham, Conservator of Scottish
Privileges at Campvere. In November he was
again with the king at Jersey, with letters from the
Committee of Estates, and landed at Leith from
a Dutch war-ship, in February, 1650, charged with
letters from Charles 11. to the Parliament and
General Assembly, prior to the king?s coronation in
Scotland.
He.served in the Regiment of the College of
Justice, and being mortally wounded at the battle of
Dunbar,died eight days after the defeat in that town.
His son, colonel in the Scottish army, was
Lieutenant-Governor of Edinburgh Castle, under
the Duke of Gordon, during the protracted siege
thereof in 1688-9, and the latter was urged by
Dundee to repair to the Highlands, and leave the
defence of the fortress to Winram, who was deemed
a loyal and gallant officer.
After the capitulation, in violation of its terms, he
was made a prisoner in the fortress for some time,
and after that we hear no more of him in history.
In 1726 The Inch and Nether Liberton belonged
In the middle of the eighteenth century the
house was the residence of Patrick Grant, Lord
Elchies, a senator of the College of Justice. Born
in 1690, he was called to the bar in 1711, became
a judge of the Court of Session in 1732, andof the
Court of Justiciary three years subsequently. He
was an able lawyer and upright judge, and collected
various decisions, which were published in two
quarto volumes, and edited by W. M. Morrison,
advocate.
He died at the Inch House on 27th June, 1754,
in the sixty-fourth year of his age, leaving behind
him, as the papers of the time say, the character
of an honest man, a sincere friend, an able lawyer,
universally regretted by all those whose esteem,
whem alive, he would have wished to gain.?
Edmonstone House, which is the seat of Sir John
Don Wauchope, Bart., lies about a mile south of
Niddne, on high and commanding ground overlooking
the hollow where Little France and Kingston
Grange lie, and is an elegant mansion, surrounded
by fine plantations. It was named Edmonstown,
from Edmond, a Saxon follower of
Margaret, the Queen of Malcolm Canmore, said to
be a younger son of Count Egmont of Flanders,
and froni whom the Edmonstones of Duntreath
and Ednum (chief branch of the family, but lately
extinct) and all others of the name are descended.
A charter of the office of coroner for Edinburgh
was given to John of Edmonstone by King David
II.,pro toto tempore vita SUE, dated at Aberdeen in
the thirty-third year of his reign. The same, or
another having the same name, received from the
same king a grant of the thanage of Boyen, in
Banffshire. Sir John de Edmonstone, knight, was
one of three ambassadors sent by Robert 11. to
Charles V. of France in 1374, to solicit his interposition
with the Pope and Sacred College to
procure a favourable decree in the suit prosecuted
at the instance of Margaret Logie, Queen
Consort of Scodand.
He married Isabel, daughter of Robert II.,
relict of James, Earl of Douglas, who fell at Otterbourne
in 1388, and left two sons, one of whom was
Knight of Culloden and first of the House of
Duntreath. ... commanding ground overlooking the hollow where Little France and Kingston Grange lie, and is an elegant ...

Book 6  p. 338
(Score 0.87)

......

Book 9  p. 562
(Score 0.87)

18
secure lock was placed upon it for the same purpose.
In 1647 only three open thoroughfares are shown
OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. r.,anongate.
1695, he early exhibited great talent with profound
legal knowledge, and the mere enumeration of his I
but there once stood on its eastern side a stately
ald tenement, bearing the date 1614 with this pious
legend: I. TAKE. THE. LORD. JESUS. AS. MY. ONLV.
ALL. SUFFICIENT. P~RTION. TO. CONTENT. ME. This
was cut in massive Roman letters, and the house
was adorned by handsome dormer windows and
moulded stringcourses; but of the person who dwelt
therein no memory remains. And the same must
be said of the edifices in the closes called Morocco
and Logan?s, and several others.
Between these two lies Rae?s Close, .very dark and
narrow, leading only to a house with a back green,
beyond which can be seen the Calton Hill. In
the sixteenth century this alley was the only open
thoroughfare to the north between Leith Wynd
?
Kinloch?s mansion and that which adjoined itthe
abode of the Earls of Angus-were pulled
down about 1760, when New Street was built, ?a
curious sample of fashionable modem improvement,
prior to the bold scheme of the New Town,?
and first called Young Street, according to Kincaid.
Though sorely faded and decayed, it still presents
a series of semi-aristocratic, detached, and not indigent
mansions of the plain form peculiar to the
time. Among its inhabitants were Lords Kames
and Railes, Sir Philip Ainslie, the Lady Betty
Anstruther, Christian Rarnsay daughter of the poet,
Dr. Young the eminent physician, and others,
Henry Home, Lord Kames, who was raised
to the bench in 1752, occupied a self-contained
to the north-one the Tolbooth Wynd-and all are
closed by arched gates in a wall bounding the
Canongate on the north, and lying parallel with a
long watercourse flowing away towards Craigentinnie,
and still extant.
Kinloch?s Close, described in 1856 as ?short,
dark, and horrible,? took its name from Henry
Kinloch, a wealthy burgess of the? Canongate in
the days of Queen Mary, who committed to his
hospitality, in 1565, when she is said to have
acceded to the League of Bayonne, the French
. ambassadors M. de Rambouillet and Clernau,
who came on a mission from the Court of France.
Their ostensible visit, however, was more probably
to invest Darnley with the order of St. Michael.
They had come through England with a train of
thirty-six mounted gentlemen. After presenting
themselves before the king and queen at Holyrood,
according to the ?? Diurnal of Occurrent$,?
they ?there after depairtit to Heny Kynloches
lugeing in the Cannogait besyid Edinburgh.?
A few days after Darnley was solemnly invested
with the collar of St. Michael in the abbey church;
and on the I rth of February the ambassadors were
banqueted, and a masked ball y.as given, when
? the Queenis Grace and all her Manes and ladies
were cZed in men?s appardy and each of them presented
a sword, ? brawlie and maist artificiallie
made a d embroiderit with gold, to the said ambassatour
and his gentlemen.? Next day they were
banqueted in the castle by the Earl of Mar, and
on the? next ensuing they took their departure for
France vid England.
works on law and history would fill a large page.
He was of a playful disposition, and fond of practical
jokes; but during the latter part oc his life
he entertained a nervous dread that he would outlive
his noble faculties, and was pleased to find
that by the rapid decay of his frame he would
escape that dire calamity; and he died, after a brief
illness, in 1782, in the eighty-seventh year of his
age. The great Dr. Hunter, of ?the Tron church,
afterwards lived and died in this house.
Lord Hailes, to whom we have referred elsewhere,
resided during his latter years in New
Street; but prior to his promotion to the?bench
he generally lived at New Hailes. His house,
No. 23, was latterly possessed by Mr. Ruthven, the
ingenious improver of the Ruthven printing-press.
Christian Ramsay, the daughter of ?honest
Allan,? and so named from her mother, Christian
Ross,?lived for many years in New Street, She
was an amiable and kind-hearted woman, and
possessed something of her fatheis gift of verse.
In her seventy-fourth year she was thrown down
by a hackney-coach and had her leg broken ; yet
she recovered, and lived to be eighty-eight. Leading
a solitary life, she took a great fancy to cats,
and besides supporting many in her house, cosily
disposed of in bandboxes, she laid out food for
others around her house. ?Not a word of obloquy
would she listen to against the species,? says the
author of ? Traditions of Edinburgh,? ?? alleging,
when any wickedness of a cat was spoken 05 that
the animal must have acted under provocation,
for by nature, she asserted, they were hapless ... and Clernau, who came on a mission from the Court of France . Their ostensible visit, however, was more ...

Book 3  p. 17
(Score 0.86)

. LEITH. I01
employs the dreariest and darkest epithets in the language : In the memory
of man,' he says, that day of the year has never seen a more dolorous face
of the heaven than was at her arrival, which two days after did so continue ;
for besides the surface wet, a corruption of the air, the mist was so thick and
dark, that scarse might any man espy another the length of two pair of buttis,
The sun was not seen to shine two days before nor two days after.'
Dark and gloomy as the weather appears to have been, however, and
whatever effect it may have had upon her spirits, it does not seem to have
damped or dulled the spirits of her subjects. As soon as it was known that
the Queen had arrived, all classes of the community hastened $eZZ-meZZ
shorewards to manifest their joy and give expression to their Ioyalty. Cannon
boomed, bells rang, men shouted, and women screamed ; the vessels in the
harbour too were all gaily decked with bunting, while flags and banners were
hung out on all the public places and houses of note. Landing at ten in the
morning, she would have immediately proceeded to Holyrood; but the
laggard state of the preparations for her conveyance thither necessitated her
detention in the town for a few hours, during which, as me learn, she was
visited by the Lord James, the Earl of Argyle, and other noblemen. At
length things being got into something like order, the procession moved
forwards. Mary, mounted on her palfrey-there were no carriages in those
days-advanced through the Links and up the Easter Road towards Holyrood,
preceded and followed by all the great and the noble of the land, and amid the
shouts and acclamations of a happy and loyal people.
Light on her airy steed she sprung ;
Around with golden tassels hung ;
No chieftain there rode half so free,
Or half so light and gracefully.
Slowly she ambled on her way,
Amid her lords and ladies gay ;
Priest, abbot, layman, all were there,
And presbyter with look severe.
There rode the lords of France and Spain,
Of England, Flanders, and Lorraine ;
While serried thousands round them stood,
From shore of Leith to Holyrood.'
Mary's return to her kingdom revived a little the drooping spirits of the
Leithers, and led them to entertain the hope that something mbstantial
would now be done for them. They deserved well of her. They had aided ... presbyter with look severe. There rode the lords of France and Spain, Of England, Flanders, and Lorraine ...

Book 11  p. 154
(Score 0.86)

254 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [High Street.
where a curiously-carved fleur-de-lis surmounts the
gable, a grotesque gurgoyle of antique form serves
as a gutter to the roof.?
Abbot Andrew Durie, who was nominated to the
abbacy of Afelrose in 1526 by Tames V., resided
here; and Knox assures us that his death was
hastened by dismay and horror occasioned by the
terrible uproar on St. Giles?s day, in 1558.
The Close in earlier time took its name from the
abbots of Melrose j but at a later period was called
Rosehaugh?s Close, from Sir George Mackenzie of
Rosehaugh, King?s Advocate during the reigns of
Charles 11. and Tames II., author of many able
works on Scottish law, and also a successful
cultivator of general literature.
He obtained a charter of the property from Provost
Francis Kinloch and the magistrates in 1677,
and the house he occupied still exists, and seems
to have been a stately-enough edifice for its age.
Sir George has still an unpleasant place in the
local imagination of the Edinburgh people as ? The
Bluidy Mackenzie,? the persecutor of the Covenanters;
and though the friend of Dryden, and the
founder of the first and greatest national library in
Scotland, .he is regarded as a species of ogre in his
native capital.
The mausoleum in which he lies in the Greyfriars?
Churchyard, a domed edifice with ornate
Corinthian columns and niches, is believed by the
urchins of the city to be haunted still, as it was
commonly believed that his body could never rest
in its grave. Hence it used to be deemed a
?brag? or feat, for a boy more courageous than
his fellows to shout through the keyhole intd the
dark and echoing tomb-
? Bluidy Mackenzie, come out if ye daur,
Lift the sneck, and draw the bar ! ?
after which defiance all fled, lest the summoned
spirit might appear, and follow them.
He had a country house, ten miles south of
Edinburgh, called Shank, now in ruins. His granddaughter
was Lady Anne Dick, of Corstorphine,
whose eccentricities were wont to excite much
attention in Edinburgh society, and who was the
authoress of many droll pasquils, and personal
pasquinades in verse, which created many enemies,
who exulted in the follies of which she was guilty.
Among the latter was a fancy for dressing herself
like a gallant of the day, and going about the town
at night in search of adventures and frolics, one of
which ended unpleasantly in her being consigned
to the City Guard House. In many of her verses she
half-banteringly deplores the coldness of Sir Peter
Murray of Balmanno, in Kincardineshire, but more,
it is believed, from whim than actual fancy or regard.
One begins thus :-
? Oh, wherefore did I cross the Forth,
And leave my love behind me?
Why did I venture to the north
With one that did not mind me ?
Had I but visited Carin,
It would have been much better,
Than pique the prudes and make a din
For careless, cold Sir Peter !
<I I?m - anre I?ve seen a better limb,
And twenty better faces ;
But still my mind it ran on him
When I was at the races;
At night when we were at the ball
Were many there discreeter ;
The well-bred duke, and lively Maule,
Panrnure behaved much better.?
In conclusion, she expresses an opinion that she
must be mad ? to follow cold Sir Peter.? She died
in 1741.
During a great part of the eighteenth century
the ancient mansion in Rosehaugh?s Close was
occupied by Alexander Fraser of Strichen, who was
connected by marriage with the descendants of
Sir George RIackenzie, and who gave to the alley
the name it now bears, Strichen?s Close. He was
raised to the bench as Lord Strichen, in 1730, and
occupied a seat there and his residence in the
close for forty-five years subsequent to that date,
and was the direct ancestor of the present Lord
Lovat in the peerage of Great Britain.
The manners and habits of the people of Edinburgh
in those days-say about 173o-were as
different from those of their successors as if
they had been the natives of a foreign country.
From Carlyle?s ,Memoirs we learn that when gentlemen
were invited to dine, each brought his own
knife, fork, and spoon with him in a case (just as
gentlemen did in France prior to the first Revolution),
and a marked peculiarity of the period was
a combination of showy and elegant costume with
much simplicity, coarseness of thought, and roughness
of speech, occasional courtesy, and great
promptness to ire. Intercourse with France, and
the service of so many Scottish gentlemen in the
French army, !ed to a somewhat incongruous ingrafting
of. French politeness on the homely manners?
of the Scottish aristocracy; yet it was no
uncommon thing for a lady to receive gentlemen,
together with lady. visitors, in her bed-room, for
then, within the walled city, the houses had few
rooms without a bed, either openly or screened;
while the seemliness and delicacy now attendant
on marriages and births were almost unknown.
The slender house accommodation in the turn ... and spoon with him in a case (just as gentlemen did in France prior to the first Revolution), and a marked ...

Book 2  p. 254
(Score 0.86)

......

Book 8  p. 290
(Score 0.86)

SKIRMISH AT HAWKHILL. ?75 Leith.]
defend the town ?to the last of their blood and
breath.?
At their head was Pictro Strozzi, Lord of Epernay,
a Florentine, who had been made a marshal
of France five years before, and whose two brothers
served in these Scottish wars-Gaspare, who was
killed at Inchkeith, and Leon, who was prior of
Capua and general of the galleys of France at the
capture of St. Andrews.
Under Mardchal Strozzi were Monsieur Octavius,
brother of the Marquis d?Elbceuff, a peer of the
house of Lorraine, who led into Scotland some of
,the old Bandes Franpises, or Free Companies ; the
IConite de Martigues (aftenvards Duc d?Estampes), a
young noble of the house of Luxembourg ; Captain
the Sieur Jacques de la Brosse, one of the hundred
knights of St. Michael ; General d?Oisel, a d many
ather French officers of high family and the highest
spirit.
In those days the use of fire-arnis had led to a
great many alterations in military equipment ; breastplates
were made thicker, in order to be bullet
proof, and the tassettes attached to these were
.of one plate each; and many of the morions
worn by the French and Italians were beautifully
embossed; and carbines, petronels, and dragons
(hence dragoons) are frequently mentioned as
among the fire-arms in use at this time ; while the
pike was still considered the (( queen of weapons ?
for horse and foot.
Mardchal Strozzi ordered the tower of St. Anthony?s
Preceptory? near the Kirkgate, to be armed ;
cannon were accordingly swayed up to its summit.
Holinshed says the English raised a mound, which
they naged Mount Pelham, on the south-east
side of the town, and armed it with a battery of
guns. Another to the south of this was named
Mount Somerset, and both of them remain till
the present day; and when the young grass is
sprouting in spring, the zig-zags that led therefrom
to the walls can often be distinctly traced in the
Links.
Before Lord Grey got his men comfortably encamped
at Restalrig, ?( in halls, huts, and pavilions,?
Strozzi had despatched go0 arquebusiers against
him to check his advance.
Marching across the Links, this force took possession
of the wooded eminence named Hawkhill,
and a sharp conflict at once ensued with the
English. For several hours the French fought
gallantly, but were compelled, after severe loss,
to fall back upon Leith, while the English took
possession of Hawkhill, planted guns upon it, and
advancing with caution and care under a cannonade,
occupied all the rising ground mending to Hermitage
Hill, which completely commands town and
Links on the east.
After this repulse, and before the siege formally
commenced, the French resorted to a little treachery
by sending a special messenger to Lord
Grey requesting a brief truce, which he readily
granted. On this, great numbers of them, previously
instructed, issued from Leith, and thronged
about the English camp at Restalrig, the Hawkhill,
and elsewhere, as if merely actuated by curiosity.
Ere long they became offensive in manner, and
began to pick quarrels with English sentinels, who
were not slow in retorting, and Lord Grey eventually
ordered them instantly to retire. On this,
they demanded whence came his right to order
them off the ground of their mistress the Queen
Regent of Scotlznd. They were told that if the
truce had not been granted at their own request
they would have been compelled to keep at a
distance.
On this the French fired their carbines and
petronels into the faces of those nearest them;
volleys of oaths and outcries followed, and several
Frenchmen who had been in concealment came to
aid the pretended loungers in the m 2 , and soldiers
were seen rushing to arms in all directions, without
comprehending what the uproar was about ; at last
the French were again driven in, but with the loss
of one hundred and forty men killed and seventeen
taken prisoners. The loss of the English is not
stated ; but it was probably greater than that of the
French, as they were taken by surprise.
The next event was a sally made by the Comte
de Martigues on the English trenches, when, according
to Keith, he spiked three pieces of cannon,
put 600 men to the sword, and took Sir Maurice
Berkeley prisoner.
Frequent and sanguinary sallies were thus made
by the French to scour the trenches and retard
their progress, till the English, instead of waiting
patiently within them to repel such assaults, now
resolved to become the aggressors, and whenever the
French were seen to issue from the town, an equal
force met them with sword and pike on the Links ;
and the bitterness and fury of these encounters
were increased by the knowledge of those engaged
that they were overlooked on either side by their
respective comrades and commanders
Elizzbeth having despatched reinforcements to
the allied camp-for such it was-before Leith,
Lord Grey determined to press the siege with
greater vigour, the more so as the town was already
beginning to suffer from famine. On the 4th of
May he set fire to the water-mills, and destroyed
them, notwithstanding all the efforts of the French ... Epernay, a Florentine, who had been made a marshal of France five years before, and whose two brothers served ...

Book 5  p. 175
(Score 0.86)

......

Book 9  p. 530
(Score 0.86)

......

Book 11  p. 186
(Score 0.85)

with whom she took up her abode. After having
effectually lulled all suspicion, she affected to remember
a vow she had made to visit the White
Kirk of Brechin (according to the '' Chronicles of
Pitscottie "), and bade adieu to the Chancellor overnight,
with many tender recommendations of the
young king to his care. She set forth betimes next
morning with her retinue, and baggage borne on
sumpter horses. In one of the arks or chests
:trapped on one of these she had the young king
concealed, with his own consert. He was thus
conveyed to Leith, and from thence by water to
Stirling, where she placed him in the hands of the
Regent Livingstone, while the haughty Douglas
kept aloof, as one who took no interest in the
petty intrigues around the throne. Livingstone
now unfurled the royal standard, levied troops, and
laid siege to the Castle of Edinburgh ; but the wary
Chanceflor, finding that he had been outwitted,
pretended to compromise matters by delivering
the keys of the gates into the hands of the king,
after which they all supped together in the great
hall of the fortress. Crichton was confirmed in his
ofice of Chancellor, and the other as regent and
guardian of the royal person, a state of affairs not
fated to last long.
Livingstone having quarrelled with the queen,
she carried off the young king again, and restored
him to the custody of the Chancellor in the Castle
of Edinburgh. Under the guidance of the Bishops
of Moray and Aberdeen, then resident in the city,
a conference was held in the church of St. Giles,
' making him and his rival joint guardians, which,
from their mutual dread and hatred of the Earl of
Douglas, led to an amicable arrangement, and the
young king chose the Castle as his future place of
residence.
The great house..of. Dauglas,had naw reached
the zenith of its baronial power and pride. The
earl possessed Annabdale, Galloway, and other extensive
dominions in. the southern counties, where
all men bowed to his authority. He had the
dukedom of Touraine and lordship of Longueville
in France. He was allied to the royal family of
Scotland, and had at his back a powerful force of
devoted vassals, trained to arms, led by brave
knights, who were ripe at all times for revolt and
strife.
'' The Regent and the Chancellor are both alike
to me," said he, scornfully ; " 'tis no matter which
may overcome, and if both perish the country
will be the better ; and it is a pleasant sight for
honest men to.see such fencers yoked together."
But soon after the potent Douglas died at
Restalrig-h June, 144o-and was succeeded by
his son William, then in his sixteenth year ; and
now the subtle and unscrupulous old Chancellor
thought that the time had come to destroy with
safety a family he alike feared and detested. In
the flush of his youth and p...12, fired by the
flattery of his dependents, the young earl, in the
retinue and splendour that surrounded him far
surpassed his sovereign. He never rode abroad
with less than two thousand lances under his
banner, well horsed, and sheathed in mail, and
he actually, according to Buchanan, sent as his
ambassadors to the court of France Sir Malcolm
Fleming and Sir John Lauder of the Bass, to
obtain for him a new patent of the duchy of
Touraine, which had been conferred on his grandfather
by Charles VII. Arrogance so unwonted
and grandeur so great alarmed both Crichton and
Livingstone, who could not see where all this was
to end.
Any resort to violence would lead to civil war.
He was therefore, with many flatteries, lured to
partake of a banquet in the Castle of Edinburgh,
accompanied by his brother the little Lord David
and Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauld. With
every show of welcome they were placed at the
same table with the king, while the portcullis was
suddenly lowered, the gates carefully shut, and
their numerous and suspicious train excluded.
Towards the close of the entertainment a black
bull's head-an ancient Scottish symbol that some
one was doomed to death-was suddenly placed
upon the board. The brave boys sprang up, and
drew their swords; but a band of Crichton's
vassals, 'in complete armour, rushed in from a
chamber called the Tiring-house, and dragged
forth the three guests, despite the tears and entreaties
of the young king.
I They were immediately beheaded-on the 24th
of November, I 440-according to Godscroft, '' in
the back court of the Castle that lyeth to the west"
(where the barracks now stand); in the great
hall, according to Balfour. They were buried in
the fortress, and when, in 1753, some workmen, in
digging a foundation there, found the plate and.
handles of a coffin all of which were pure gold,
they were supposed tp belong to that in which
the Earl of Douglas was placed. Singular to say,
Crichton was never brought to trial for this terrible
outrage. " Venomous viper ! I' exclaims the old
historian of the Douglases, "that could hide so
deadly poyson under so faire showes ! unworthy
tongue, unelesse to be cut oute for example to all
ages ! A lion or tiger for cruelty of heart-a waspe
or spider for spight ! " He also refers to a rude
ballad on the subject, beginning ... had the dukedom of Touraine and lordship of Longueville in France . He was allied to the royal family ...

Book 1  p. 30
(Score 0.85)

......

Book 9  p. 679
(Score 0.84)

78 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [ Holyrood.
The Edinburgh HeraZd of April, 1797, mentions
the departure froni Holyrood of the Duc
d?Angoul&me for Hamburg, to join the army of the
Prince of Condd, and remarks, (( We wish His Highness
aprosperous voyage, and we may add (the
valediction of his ancestor, Louis XIV., to the
unfortunate James VII.), may we never see his
face again on the same errand ! ?
The Comte d?Artois visited Sweden in 1804,
but was in Britain again in 1806. His levees and
balls ?tended in some degree to excite in the minds
of the inhabitants a faint idea of the days of other
years, when the presence of its monarchs communicated
splendour and animation to this ancient
metropolis, inspiring it with a proud consciousness
of the remote antiquity and hereditary independence
of the Scottish throne.?
His farewell address to the magistrates and
people, dated from the palace 5th August, 1799, is
preserved among the records of the city.
Among those who pressed forward to meet him
was a Newhaven fishwife, who seized his hand as
he was about to enter his carriage, and shook it
heartily, exclaiming, ?( My name?s Kirsty Ramsay,
sir. I am happy to see you again among decent
folk ! ?
- When the events of the Three Days compelled
Charles X to abdicate the throne of France, he
waived his rights in favour of his nephew, the
young puc de Bordeaux, and quitting his throne,
contemplated at once returning to Holyrood,
where he had experienced some years of comparative
happiness, and still remembered with
gratitude the kindness of the citizens. This he
evinced by his peculiar favour to all Scotsmen,
and his munificence to the sufferers by the great
fire in the Parliament Square. He and his suiteconsisting
of IOO exiles, including the ~ U C de
Bordeaux, Duc de Polignac, Duchesse de Berri,
Baron de Damas, Marquis de Brabancois, and the
Abbe? de Moligny-landed at Newhaven on the
20th October, 1830, amid an enthusiastic crowd,
which pressed forward on all sides with outstretched
hands, welcoming him back to Scotland, and
escorted him to Holyrood. Next morning many
gentlemen dined in Johnston?s tavern at the abbey
in honour of the event, sang ?Auld lang syne?
under his windows, and gave three ringing cheers
?( for the King of France? ?
The Duc and Duchesse d?Angoul&me, after
residing during \se winter at 2 I, Regent Terrace,
joined the king% Holyrood when their apartments
were ready. To the poor of the Canongate
and the city generally, the exiled family were
royally liberal, and also to the poor Irish, and their
whole bearing was unobtrusive, religious, and
exemplary. Charles was always thoughtful and
melancholy. (? He walked frequently in Queen.
Mary?s garden, being probably pleased by its
seclusion and proximity to the palace. Here,
book in hand, he used to pass whole hours in retirement,
sometimes engaged in the perusal of the
volume, and anon stopping short, apparently
absorbed in deep reflection. Charles sometimes
indulged in a walk through the city, but the crowds
that usually followed him, anxious to gratify their
curiosity, in some measure detracted from the
pleasure of these perambulations. . . . . . Arthur?s
Seat and the King?s Park afforded many a solitary
walk to the exiled party, and they seemed much
delighted with their residence. It was evident
from the first that Charles, when he sought the
shores of Scotland, intended to make Holyrood his.
home; and it may be imagined how keenly he felt,
when, after a residence of nearly two years, he was
under the necessity of removing to another country.
Full of the recollection of former days, which time
had not effaced from his memory, he said he had
anticipated spending the remainder of his life in the
Scottish capital, and laying his bones among the
dust of our ancient kings in the chapel of Holyrood.?
(Kay, vol. ii.)
In consequence of a remonstrance from Louis
Philippe, a polite but imperative order compelled
the royal family to prepare to quit Holyrood,
and the most repulsive reception given to the Duc
de Blacas in London, was deemed the forerunner
Df harsher measures if Charles hesitated to comply ;
but when it became known that he was to depart,
a profound sensation of regret was manifested in ?
Edinburgh. The 18th September, 1832, was
named as the day of embarkation. Early on that
morning a deputation, consisting of the Lord
Provost Learmonth of Dean, Colonel G. Macdonell,
Menzies of Pitfoddels (the last of an
ancient line), Sir Charles Gordon of Drimnin,
James Browne, LL.D., Advocate, the historian of
the Highlands, and other gentlemen, bearers of arm
address drawn up by, and to be read by the lastnamed,
appeared before the king at Holyrood. One
part of this address contained an allusion to the
little Duc de Bordeaux so touching that the poor
king was overwhelmed With emotion, and clasped
the document to his heart. ?( I am unable to express
myself,? he exclaimed, ?( but this I will conserve
among the most precious possessions of my
family.?
After service in the private chapel, many gentlemen
and ladies appeared before Charles, the Duc
d?AngoulCme, and Duc de Bordeaux, when they ... Three Days compelled Charles X to abdicate the throne of France , he waived his rights in favour of his ...

Book 3  p. 78
(Score 0.83)

treyes beneath the Over Bow to be removit;? the
meal market, &c., to be removed from the High
Street to foot of James Aikman?s Close, and the
? grass market to the kirkyard foot ; twelve chief
citizens were to be arrayed in velvet gowns ; the
craftsmen to be arrayed in French cloth, with
doublets of velvet, satin, and damask; thirty-seven
citizens to be mounted with velvet foot-mantles
and velvet gowns, and all the town officers to be
To the inexpressible grief of James and the
whole nation, Magdalene, then only in her
seventeenth year, died of her insidious disease on
the 10th of July. She was interred with great
pomp in the royal vault, near the coffin of James II.,
and her untimely death was the occasion of the
first general mourning ever worn in the kingdom.
In the treasurer?s accounts are many entries of
the ? Scots claith, French blak, Holland claith,
and corsses upon the velvet.? On her coffin
was inscribed in Saxon characters, ?? Magdalena
Erancisci R&s Frank, Primogmifa Regina Sotie
Sponsa Jacoh? K Regis, A. D. I 53 7, obiit.?
Jarnes, however, was not long a widower, and
in June, 1538, he brought to Scotland a new bride,
Mary of Guise, the widow of the Duke de
Longuevihe, who landed at Balcomie, escorted by
an admiral of France, and the nuptials were
celebrated with pomp at St. Andrews j and on St.
Margaret?s Day in the same year, this new queendestined
to enact so important a part in the
future history of the realm-made her public entry
into Edinburgh by the Port, and rode tw
Holyrood Palace, while peat sports and gaiety
says Pitscottie. Curious plays were made for
her entertainment, and gold, spices, and wines were
lavished upon her by the magistrates, who wellnigh
exhausted the finances of the city.
Amid the State turnoils and horrors that culminated
in the rout of Solway, Jarnes V. held a
council at Holyrood on the 3rd of November,
1542, when, according to Knox, a scroll was
presented to him by Cardinal Beaton, containing
the names of more than one hundred of the pnncipal
nobles and gentry, including the Earl of
Arran, then, by deaths in the royal family, next
heir to the throne, who were undoubtedly in the
pay of England, tainted with heresy, or in leagie
with the then outlawed clan of Douglas, ... who landed at Balcomie, escorted by an admiral of France , and the nuptials were celebrated with ...

Book 3  p. 64
(Score 0.83)

Restalrig.] DRURY?S TREACHERY. x3.z
on it now. Here it probably was that the powerful
Archibald Douglas, fifth Earl of Douglas, Lord
of Bothwell, Galloway, and Annandale, Duke of
Touraine aud Marshal of France, resided in 1440,
in which year he died at Restalrig, of a malignant
fever.
In 1444 Sir John Logan of Restalrig was sheriff
of Edinburgh ; and in 1508 James Logan, of the
same place, was Sheriff-deputy.
Twenty-one years before the latter date an
calsay lyand, and the town desolate.? In the
following year, Holinshed records that ? the Lord
Grey, Lieutenant of the Inglis? armie,? during the
siege of Leith, ?ludged in the town of Lestalrike,
in the Dean?s house, and part of the Demi-lances
and other horsemen lay in the same towne.?
A little way north-westward of Restalrig, midway
between the place named Hawkhill and the upper
Quarry Holes, near the Easter Road, there occurred
on the 16th of June, 1571, a disastrous skirmish, de-
~
RESTALRIG CHURCH IN THE PRESENT DAYEnglish
army had encamped at Restalrig, under the
Duke of Gloucester, who spared the city at the
request of the Duke of Albany and on receiving
many rich presents fiom the citizens, while James
III., in the hand of rebel peers, was a species of
captive in the castle of Edinburgh.
In 1559 the then secluded village was the scene
of one of the many skirmishes that took place between
the troops of the Queen Regent and those
of the Lords of the Congregation, in which the
latter were baffled, ?driven through the myre at
Restalrig-worried at the Craigingate ? (i.e., the
Calton), and on the 6th of November,? ? at even
in the nycht,? they departed ?? furth of Edinburgh
to Lynlithgow, and left their artailzerie on the
signated the BZack Saturday, or Drury?s peace,?
as it was sometimes named, through the alleged
treachery of the English ambassador.
Provoked by a bravado on the part of the Earl
of Morton, who held Leith, and who came forth
with horse and foot to the Hawkhill, the Earl of
Huntly, at the head of a body of Queen Mary?s
followers, with a train of guns, issued out of Edinburgh,
and halted at the Quarry Holes, where he
was visited by Sir William Drury, the ambassador
of Queen Elizabeth, who had been with Morton in
Leith during the preceding night. His proposed
object was an amicable adjustment of differences,
to the end that no loss of life should ensue between
those who were countrymen, and, in too ... and Annandale, Duke of Touraine aud Marshal of France , resided in 1440, in which year he died at ...

Book 5  p. 133
(Score 0.83)

......

Book 9  p. 638
(Score 0.82)

I74 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. ? [Leith.
preachers, who though profound unbelievers in any
kind of consecration, ?? publicly declared that God
would not allow such wickedness and irreverence
to pass unpunished, as it betokened contempt for
the place where men assembled for divine service.?
The troops of the Congregation now imagined that
the vengeance of Heaven impended over them,
ready to burst on the first opportunity, for their
iniquity in using a church as a carpenter?s shop ;
and there was another alarming element in the
ranks, a want of pay, which caused a disinclination
to fight.
Queen Elizabeth had sent the Lords 4,000
crowns of the sun, but these had been abstracted
from the bearer, at the sword?s point, by that
spirit of evil, James, Earl of Bothwell (the future
Duke of Orkney), and now their troops became
disheartened and disorderly. ?? The men of war,?
says Knox, ?who were men without God or
honesty, made a mutiny, because they lacked part
of their wages ; they had done the same in Linlithgow
before, when they made a proclamation
that they would serve any man to suppress the
Congregation, and set up the mass again ! ?
In their desperation the Lords applied to England,
and a meeting was held at Berwick between
the Duke of Norfolk and their delegates, who were
Lord James Stuart (the future Regent Moray), Lord
Ruthven (one of Rizzio?s assassins), James Wishart
of Pittarow, and three others ; and the treaty which
the duke concluded with these Reformers was confirmed
by the Queen of England. The alleged
objects were, ? the defence of the Protestant religion,
of the ancient rights and liberties of Scotland,
against the attempts of France to destroy
them and make a conquest of that free kingdomin
effect, to crush completely the Catholic interest
and the power of the House of Guise.?
The French in Leith cared little for this treaty,
as they were in daily expectation of fresh succours
from France j but their scouting and ravaging detachments
in Fife, under the Count de Martigues,
General d?Oisel, the Swiss leader L?Abast, and
others, were severely cut up by Kirkaldy of Grange,
the Master of Lindsay, and other Protestant
leaders ; disasters followed fast, and before they
could concentrate all their forces in Leith they suffered
considerable loss in skirmishes by the way.
The Lords of the Congregation now ordered a
general muster before the walls of Leith on the
joth of March, 1560, every man to come fully
equipped for battle, with thirty days? provisions ;
and in conformity with the treaty referred to, on
? the 2nd of April there marched into Scotland an
English force, consisting of 1,250 horse and 6,000
infantry, under a brave and experienced leader,
Lord Grey de Wilton, warden of the East and
Middle Marches of England.
Sir James Crofts was his second in command ;
Sir George Howard was general of the men-at-arm%
or heavy cavalry, and Burnley Fitzpatrick was his
lieutenant ; Sir Henry Piercy led the demi-lances,
or light horse ; William Pelham was captain of the
pioneers, Thomas Gower captain of the ordnance ;
the LordScrope was Earl Marshal. Many of these
troops had served at the battle of Pinkie and in
other affairs against Scotland.
Lord Grey?s first halt was at Dunglas, where he
encamped his infantry, while the English cavalry
were peacefully cantoned in the adjacent hamlets.
The second day?s halt was at Haddington. As.
they passed the royal castle of Dunbar the Queen?s.
troops made a sally, an encounter took place, and
some lives were lost. ?The third day?s march,
brought them to Prestonpans, where they met the
Scottish leaders, and had an interview, which is,
perhaps, the more important from the fact that we
now find, for the first time in history, Scottish and
English forces acting together as allies.?
On the first of the same month an English fleet
under Vice-Admiral William Winter, Master of
Elizabeth?s Ordnance, cast anchor in the roads to)
assist in the reduction of Leith. According to
Lediard?s Naval History,? he instantly attacked.
and made himself master of the French ships which
were there at anchor, and blocked up Inchkeith.
It was defended by a French garrison, which was
soon reduced to the last extremity for want of provisions.
All this was done in defiance of the remonstrances.
of M. De Severre, the French ambassad% at the
Regent?s court, who went on board the English
fleet in the roads.
Lord Grey encamped at Restalrig, where he was
joined by the Earls of Argyle, Montrose, and Glencairn
; the Lords Boyd and Ochiltree ; the prior ot
St. Andrews, and the hlaster of Maxwell, with
2,000 men. On this occasion the Town Council of
Edinburgh contributed from the corporation funds
A1,600 Scots, as a month?s pay for 400 men to
assist in the reduction of Leith--?a sum,? says 5
historian, ?which enabled each of these warriors to
live at the rate of twopence-halfpenny a day.?
The Queen Regent, whose dying condition rendered
it impossible for her expose herself to the
hazards of a siege in Leith, retired into the castle of
Edinburgh, where she daily and anxiously watched
the operations of her Scottish enemies and their
English allies The French in Leith were now
reduced to about 5,000 men, whose orders were to ... and liberties of Scotland, against the attempts of France to destroy them and make a conquest of that free ...

Book 5  p. 174
(Score 0.82)

350 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.
No. CXL.
SIR DAVID RAE OF ESKGROVE, BART.,
LORD JUSTICE-CLERK.
SIR DAVID RAE was the son of the Rev. David Rae, a clergyman of the
Episcopal persuasion in Edinburgh, by Apes, a daughter of Sir David Forbes
of Newhall, Baronet, brother to the celebrated Duncan Forbes of Culloden.
He was born in 1729, and acquired his classical education at the University
of Edinburgh, where he studied for the bar, and was admitted a member of the
Faculty of Advocates in 1751. When the celebrated Douglas cause was before
the Court, he was appointed one of the Commissioners who accompanied Lords
Monboddo and Gardenstone (then advocates) to France, in 1764, for the purpose
of investigating the proceedings which had been carried on in Paris
relative to the case.
After thirty years of honourable and successful practice at the bar, Mr. Rae
was promoted to the bench on the death of Alexander Boswell of Auchideck
in 1782, and succeeded Robert Bruce of Kennet as a Lord of Justiciary in 1785.
On his promotion, he assumed the title of Lord Eskgrove, from the name of a
small estate near Inveresk, not far from Musselburgh. On the bench he was
distinguished by that depth of legal knowledge and general talent for which he
was eminent as an advocate. His opinions were generally expressed in a clear,
lucid manner ; and he sometimes indulged in humorous illustration.
In a cause relating to the game-laws, decided in 1790,' after parties had
been heard, and the Lord Justice-clerk (Macqueen), as well as Lord Hailes,
had severally delivered their opinions in favour of the pursuer, Lord Monboddo,
as he frequently did, held quite a different opinion from the rest of his brethren.
He contended that, in order to prevent our noblemen and gentlemen from
growing effeminate, and for preserving their strength and bodies in good order,
the legislature meant to encourage sportsmen, and allowed them to pursue
their game where they could find it; and he desired to see what law took
away this right. There were laws, indeed, prohibiting them from hunting on
enclosed grounds; but when it prohibited them from those grounds, it certainly
implied that they were tolerated on grounds not enclosed. Although he should
stand single in his opinion, he could see no reason for altering it.
Lord Eskgrove observed in reply, that he was no hunter himself, and he
The parties were the Earl of Breadalbane 'DL. ivingstone of Parkhall ; the latter having killed
game on the lands of the Earl without permission. The w e was decided against the defender. ... Lords Monboddo and Gardenstone (then advocates) to France , in 1764, for the purpose of investigating the ...

Book 8  p. 488
(Score 0.82)

142 ROSLIN, HAWTHORNDEN,
bodies lay as thick as a man may notte cattell grasing in a full plenished pasture,
and 'the ryvere ran a1 red with blood.' 1 At nightfall the English mustered
again near Inveresk and gave a shout that the people heard in the streets of
Edinburgh. Next morning the English set to work to bury their dead ; and,
some halfcentury ago, a great number of the skeletons were excavated at
Pinkie-bum. A copsewood has been planted to mark out these rows ; and on
the spot where the Protectois tent was pitched, on the outskirts of Eskgrove,
a memorial pillar stands with this inscription upon it :-
THEP ROTECTORD, UKEO F SOMERSET,
Encamped here, 9th September,
1547.
The marriage between the children of the two realmsnever tookplace.
Somerset withdrew into England, and the little Mary was shipped off to France.
Twenty years elapsed, and once more two hostile forces met on the banks of
the Esk, within sight of the battlefield of Pinkie. Mary Stuart and Bothwell,
with some 2000 followers, were stationed upon Carberry Hill, while at a little
distance, on the other side of a hollow, were ranged the forces of the Confederate
Lords, flaunting their banner, on which was painted the figure of a dead man.
AI1 through the June day the Lords conferred with Bothwell and the Queen,
who, sitting upon a stone, clad in her runaway garb of short jacket and red
petticoat, was alternately fierce, tearful, and haughty. Then, as evening was
closing in, the Lords made their last proposition, and Mary knew she must
submit to it. Bothwell was to go free, and Mary was to be led away captive.
She consented, and on the green slope of Carbemy Hill they parted for ever.
Bothwell rode away upon his horse ; and Mary was taken back into Edinburgh,
dusty, tear-stained, and desperate, amidst the execrations of the crowd.'
' Cover my face for me :
I cannot heave my hand up to my head ;
Mine arms are broken.-Is he got to horse 7
I 'do not think one can die more than this.
I did not say fare~ell.'~
At Musselburgh, the Roman bridge, now preserved in the clutches of
strong iron bands, and succeeded, for all rougher traffic, by a broad modem
1 Patten's Expedicimn : vide Statistical Account.
3 Froude's ffistmy of EngZand, 1865, vol. ix. p. ga.
a EothwcZl, by A. C. Swinbume. ... into England, and the little Mary was shipped off to France . Twenty years elapsed, and once more two hostile ...

Book 11  p. 201
(Score 0.82)

.
sterling. The largest ship was only 150 tons, and
the highest valued was 8,000 pounds Scots, or
A666 13s. 4d. sterling. In the list of masters?
names appear Brown, Barr, and Bartain (the old
historic Barton), names, says Robertson, prominent
in the maritime records of Leith, doubtless descendants
of the respective families.
In 1692 the shore dues were only A466 13s. 4d.
Scots, equivalent to A38 17s. gid. of the money
of the present day.
LEITH ROADS, 1824. (Aftera DruwiBg by/. Gul&?tCtry.)
times,? says h o t , ?we mustreflect that the prices
paid formerly were simply the rates at which commodities
could be furnished, almost without any
duty to Government; whereas now, in many instances,
the taxes levied by Government exceed
the value of the articles upon which they are im
posed.?
Tea was imported about the end of the seventeenth
century, and there is still preserved a
receipt from the East India Company to an Edin-
Yet generally the connection of Scotland as regards
trade was far from inconsiderable at that period
with Denmark, the Baltic, Holland, and France.
Her ships frequently made voyages from Leith to
Tangiers and other ports on the Mediterranean ;
and from Leith were exported wool, woollen-cloth,
druggets, and stuffs of all kinds, and, to a large
extent, both linen and corn.
The imports to Leith were linen and fine woollen
manufactures, wood in the form of logs and staves,
wines of various kinds, and small quantities of
sugar and miscellaneous articles of every-day use,
from Rotterdam and Amsterdam. ?? In comparing
the prices of a gallon of wine or ale, a pound of
candles, or a pair of shoes in ancient and modem
burgh merchant for a chest of Bohea at 15s. per
pound, which came to the value of A225 15s.
In 1705 green tea was 16s. per pound, and
Bohea had risen to 30s.
In 1740 the shipping of Leith amounted to fortyseven
sail, with a total of 2,628 tonnage. The
names of these vessels were quaint-the Charming
Befty, Pair Susanna, and .Ha@y Janet, may be
given as samples.
In the following year, Walter Scott, Bailie of
Leith, issued a proclamation on the 8th August to
this effect :-
?Whereas the separate commanders of the five
East India ships, lying in the Roads of Leith,
have signified that the said ships are to sail early ... at that period with Denmark, the Baltic, Holland, and France . Her ships frequently made voyages from Leith ...

Book 6  p. 276
(Score 0.81)

Leith.] FIGHT IN THE HARBOUR. ?33
of war, which had been at anchor for six weeks
in the Roads, and apparently with all her guns
shotted,
About noon on the 10th December, 1613, an
Englishman, who was in a ?mad humour,? says
Calderwood, when the captain and most of the
officers were on shore, laid trains of powder throughout
the vessel, notwithstanding that his own son
was on board, and blew her up. Balfour states
that she was a 48-gun ship, commanded by a
Captain Wood, that sixty men were lost in her,
and sixty-three who escaped were sent to London.
Calderwood reduces the number who perished to
twenty-four, and adds that the fire made all her
ordnance go off, so that none dared go near her to
render assistance.
In 1618 Leith was visited by Taylor, the Water
Poet, and was there welcomed by Master Bernard
Lindsay, one of the grooms of his Majesty?s bedchamber;
and his notice of the commerce of the
port presents a curious contrast to the Leith of the
present day :-cc I was credibly informed that within
the compass of one year there was shipped away
from that only port of Leith fourscore thousand
boles of wheat, oats, and barley, into Spain, France,
and other foreign parts, and every bole contains a
measure of four English bushels; so that from
Leith only hath been transported 320,000 bushels
of corn, besides some hath been shipped away
from St. Andrews, Dundee, Aberdeen, &c., and
other portable towns, which makes me wonder that
a kingdom so populous as it is, should nevertheless
sell so much bread corn beyond the seas, and yet
have more than sufficient for themselves.?
In parochial and other records of those days
many instances are noted of the capture of Scottish
mariners by the pirates of Algiers, and of collections
being made in the several parishes for their
redemption from slavery. In the Register of the
Privy Council, under date January, r636, we find
that a ship called the Jdn, of Leith, commanded
by John Brown, when sailing from London to
La Rochelle, on the coast of France, fell in with
three Turkish men-of-war, which, after giving him
chase from sunrise to sunset, captured the vessel,
took possession of the cargo and crew, and then
scuttled her.
Poor Brown and his mariners were all taken to
Salee, and there sold in the public market as
slaves. Each bore iron chains to the weight of
eighty pounds, and all were daily employed in
grinding at a mill, while receiving nothing to eat
but a little dusty bread. In the night they were
confined in holes twenty feet deep aniong rats and
mice, and because they were too poor-being only
mariners-to redeem themselves, they trusted to the
benevolence of his Majesty?s subjects. By order
of the Council, a contribution was levied in the
Lothians and elsewhere, but with what result we
are not told.
In 1622 the usual excitements of the times were
varied by a sea-fight in the heart of Leith harbour.
On the 6th of June, in that year, the constable of
Edinburgh Castle received orders from the Lords
of Council to have his cannon and cannoniers in
instant readiness, as certain foreign ships were engaged
in close battle within gunshot of Leith
A frigate belonging to Philip IV. of Spain, cbmmanded
by Don Pedro de Vanvornz, had been
lying for some time at anchor within the harbour
there, taking on board provisions and stores, her
soldiers and crew coming on shore freely whenever
they chose; but it happened that one night two
vessels of war, belonging to their bitter enemies,
the Dutch, commanded by Mynheer de Hautain,
the Admiral of Zealand, came into the same anchorage,
and-as the Earl of Melrose reported to
James VI.-cast anchor close by Don Pedro.
The moment daylight broke the startled Spaniards
ran up their ensign, cleared away for action, and a
desperate fight ensued, nearly muzzle to muzzle.
For two hours without intermission, the tiers of
brass cannon from the decks of the three ships
poured forth a destructive fire, and the Spaniards,
repulsed by sword and partisan, made more than
one attempt to carry their lofty bulwarks by
boarding. The smoke of their culverins, matchlocks,
and pistolettes enveloped their rigging and
all the harbour of Leith, through the streets and
along the pier of which bullets of all sorts and
sizes went skipping and whizzing, to the terror and
confusion of the inhabitants.
As this state of things was intolerable, the burgesses
of the city and seaport rushed to arms and
armour, at the disposal of the Lords of Council,
who despatched a herald with the water bailie to
command both parties to forbear hostilities in Scottish
waters ; but neither the herald?s tabard nor the
bailie?s authority prevailed, and the fight continued
with unabated fury till midday. The Spanish
captain finding himself sorely pressed by his two
antagonists, obtained permission to warp his ship
farther within the harbour ; but still the unrelenting
Dutchmen poured their broadsides upon his
shattered hull.
The Privy Council now ordered the Admiral
Depute to muster the mariners of Leith, and assail
the Admiral of Zealand in aid of the Dunkerpuer;
but the depute reported that they were altogether
vnable, and he saw no way to enforce obedience ... thousand boles of wheat, oats, and barley, into Spain, France , and other foreign parts, and every bole contains ...

Book 5  p. 183
(Score 0.81)

Holyrocd.] HOWIESON OF BRAEHEAD. 63
space of one year, with great triumph and mem
ness.? He diligently continued the works begur
by his gallant father, and erected the north-wes
towers, which have survived more than one con
flagration, and on the most northern of which coulc
be traced, till about 1820, his name, IACOBVS RE)
SCOTORVM, in large gilt Roman letters.
In 1528 blood was again shed in Holyrooc
during a great review of Douglases and Hamilton:
held there prior to a march against the Englis?
?borders. A groom of the Earl of Lennox perceiv
ing among those present Sir James Hamilton o
Finnart, who slew that noble at Linlithgow, intent or
vengeance, tracked him into the palace ?by a dad
staircase which led to a narrow gallery,? and then
attacked him, sword in hand. Sir James en
deavoured to defend himself by the aid of hi:
. velvet mantle, but fell, pierced by six wounds, nonc
of which, however, were mortal. The gates wen
closed, and while a general mClCe was on the poin
of ensuing between the Douglases and Hamil
tons, the would-be assassin was discovered With hi:
bloody weapon, put to the torture, and then hi:
right hand was cut 04 on which ?he observed
with a sarcastic smile, that it was punished les:
than it deserved for having failed to revenge tht
murder of his beloved master.??
James V. was still in the palace in 1530, as we find
in the treasurer?s accounts for that year : ?? Item, tc
the Egiptianis that dansit before the king in Holy
rud House, 40s.? He was a monarch whose pure
benevolence of intention often rendered his roman.
tic freaks venial, if not respectable, since from his
anxiety to learn the wants and wishes of his humbler
subjects he was wont, like Il Boadocan4 or Haroun
Alrdschid, to traverse the vicinity of his palaces
in the plainest of disguises ; and two comic songs,
composed by himself, entitled ?We?ll gang nae
mair a-roving,? and ?The Gaberlunzie Man,? are
said to have been founded on his adventures while
masked as a beggar; and one of these, which
nearly cost him his life at Cramond, some five
miles frum Holyrood, is given in Scott?s ?? Tales of
a Grandfather.?
While visiting a pretty peasant girl in Cramond
village he was beset by four or five persons, against
whom he made a stand with his sword upon the
high and narrow bridge that spans the Almond,
in a wooded hollow. Here, when well-nigh beaten,
and covered with blood, he was succoured and
rescued by a peasant armed with a flail, who conducted
him into a barn, where he bathed his wounds;
and in the course of conversation James discovered
that the summit of his deliverer?s earthly wishes
was to be proprietor of the little farm of Braehead,
on which he was then a labourer. Aware that it was
Crown property, James said, ?? Come to Holyrood,
and inquire for the gudeman of Ballengeich,? referring
to a part of Stirling Castle which he was
wont to adopt as a cognomen.
The peasant came as appointed, and was met
by the king in his disguise, who conducted him
through the palace, and asked him if he wished
to see the king. John Howison-for such was his
name-expressed the joy it would give him, provided
he gave no offence. But how shall I know
him?? he added.
? Easily,? replied James, ?All others will be
bareheaded, the king alone will wear his bonnet.?
Scared by his surroundings and the uncovered
crowd in the great hall, John Howison looked
around him, and then said, naively, ?The king
must be either you or me, for all but us are bareheaded.?
James and his courtiers laughed ; but
he bestowed upon Howison the lands of Braehead,
?? on condition that he and his successors should
be ready to present an ewer and basin for the king
to wash his hands when His Majesty should come
to Holyrood or pass the bridge of Cramond.
Accordingly, in the year 1822, when George IV.
came to Scotland, a descendant of John Howison,
whose hmily still possess the estate, appeared at a
solemn festival, and offered His Majesty water from
a silver ewer, that he might perform the service by
which he held his land.?
Such pranks as these were ended by the king?s marriage
in I 53 7 to the Princess Magdalene, the beautiful
daughter of Francis I., with unwonted splendour in
the cathedral of Notre Dame, in presence of the
Parliament of Paris, of Francis, the Queens of
France and Navarre, the Dauphin, Duke of Orleans,
md all the leading peers of Scotland and o(
France. On the 27th of May the royal pair
landed at Leith, amid every display of welcome,
md remained a few days at Holyrood, tin the
mthusiastic citizens prepared to receive them in
state with a procession of magnificence.
Magdalene, over whose rare beauty consump-
:ion seemed to spread a veil more tender and
rlluring, was affectionate and loving in nature. On
anding, in the excess of her love for James,
;he knelt down, and, kissing the soil, prayed God
:o bless the land of her adoption-scotland, and
ts people.
The ? Burgh Records ? bear witness how anxious
he Provost and citizens were to do honour to the
)ride of ?? the good King James. All beggars were
varned off the streets : ?lane honest man of ilk
:lose or two,? were to see this order enforced ; the
vbbish near John Makgill?s house and ?the litster ... of the Parliament of Paris, of Francis, the Queens of France and Navarre, the Dauphin, Duke of Orleans, md all ...

Book 3  p. 63
(Score 0.81)

IS2 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [Leith
brunt in assis, and all thair moveable guidis to be
escheat.?
On the 6th of August, 1600, as Birrel tells us in
his Diary, there came to Edinburgh tidings of the
King?s escape from the Gowrie Conspiracy, upon
which the castle guns boomed from battery and
tower j the bells clashed, trumpets were sounded
and drums beaten; the whole town rose in arms,
?with schutting of muskettis, casting of fyre
workes and boynfyirs set furth,? with dancing and
such merriness all night, as had never before been
seen in Scotland.. The Earl of Montrose, Lord
Chancellor, the Master of Elphinstone, Lord Treasurer,
with other nobles, gathered the people around
the market cross upon their knees, to give thanks
to God for the deliverance of the King, who crossed
the Firth on the 11th of the month, and was received
upon the sands of Leith by the entire male
population of the city and suburbs, all in their
armour, ?with grate joy, schutting of muskettis,
and shaking of pikes.?
After hearing Mr. David Lindsay?s ? orisone,?
in St. Mary?s Church, he proceeded to the cross
of Edinburgh, which was hung with tapestry, and
where Mr. Patrick Galloway preached on the 124th
Psalm.
In 1601 a man was tried at Leith for stealing
grain by means of false keys, for which he was sentenced
to have his hands tied behind his back and
be taken out to the Roads and there drowned.
Birrel records that on the 12th July, 1605, the
King of France?s Guard mustered in all their bravery
on the Links of Leith, where they were sworn in
and received their pay ; but this must have referred
to some body of recruits for the Ecossuise du Roi,
of which ?? Henri Prince d?Ecosse ? was nominally
appointed colonel in 1601, and which carried on
its standards the motto, In omni modo JdeZis.
Exactly twenty years later another muster in the
same place was held of the Scots Guards for the
King of France, under Lord Gordon (son of the
Marquis of Huntly), whose younger brother, Lord
Melgum, was his lieutenant, the first gentleman of
the company being Sir William Gordon of Pitlurg,
son of Gordon of Kindroch. (? Gen. Hist. of the
Earls of Sutherland.?)
In the April of the year 1606 the Union Jack
first made its appearance in the Port of Leith. It
would seem that when the King of Scotland added
England and Ireland to his dominions, his native
subjects-very unlike their descendants-manifested,
says Chambers, the utmost jealousy regarding
their heraldic ensigns, and some contentions in
consequence arose between them and their English
neighbours, particularly at sea. Thus, on the 12th
April, 1606, ? for composing of some differences
between his subjects of North and South Britain
travelling by seas, anent the bearing of their flags,?
the King issued a proclamation ordaining the ships
of both nations to carry on their maintops the flags
of St. Andrew and St. George interlaced ; those of
North Britain in their stern that of St. Andrew, and
those of South Britain that of St. George.
In those days, whatever flag was borne, piracy
was a thriving trade in Scottish and English waters,
where vessels of various countries were often captured
by daring marauders, their crews tortured,
slaughtered, or thrown ashore upon lonely and
desolate isles. Long Island, on the Irish coast,
was a regular station for English pirate ships, and
from thence in 1609 a robber crew, headed by two
captains named Perkins and William Randall,
master of a ship called the Gryjhound, sailed for
Scottish waters in a great Dutch vessel called the
Iron Prize, accompanied by a swift pinnace, and
for months they roamed about the Northern seas,
doing an incredible deal of mischief, and they
even had the hardihood to appear off the Firth of
Forth.
The Privy Council upon this armed and fitted
out three vessels at Leith, from whence they sailed
in quest of the pirates, who had gone to Orkney to
refit. There the latter had landed near the castle
of Kirkwall, in which town they behaved barbarously,
were always intoxicated, and indulged
?in all manner of vice and villainy.? Three of
them, who had attacked a small vessel lying in
shore, belonging to Patrick Earl of Orkney, were
captured by his brother, Sir James Stewart (gentle
man of the bed-chamber to James VI.), and soon
after the three ships from Leith made their appearance,
on which many of the pirates fled in the
pinnace. A pursuit proving futile, the ships cap
tured the Iron Prize, but not without a desperate
conflict, in which several were killed and wounded.
lhirty English prisoners were taken and brought to
Leith, where-after a brief trial on the 26th of July
-twenty-seven of them, including the two captains,
were hanged at once upon a gibbet at the pier,
three of them being reserved in the hope of their
giving useful information. The Lord Chancellor,
in a letter to James VI., written on the day of the
execution, says that these pirates, oddly enough,
had a parson ?? for saying of prayers to them twice
a day,? who deserted from them in Orkney, but
was apprehended in Dundee, where he gave evidence
against the rest, and would be reserved for
the King?s pleasure.
The next excitement in Leith was caused by the
explosion of one of the King?s large English ships ... records that on the 12th July, 1605, the King of France ?s Guard mustered in all their bravery on the ...

Book 5  p. 182
(Score 0.81)

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